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Greg Evanylo Crop & Soil Environmental Sciences Virginia Tech;

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Presentation on theme: "Greg Evanylo Crop & Soil Environmental Sciences Virginia Tech;"— Presentation transcript:

1 Greg Evanylo Crop & Soil Environmental Sciences Virginia Tech;

2 Management StrategyBenefit Scale Source reduction and water conservation 10 – Maximum benefit to processor and environment Recovery for human uses7 Recovery for animal uses4 Recovery for soil conditioners and fertilizers 2 Disposal in landfill, and impoundment or incineration 0 – No benefit ↓ increasing cost Disposal in hazardous waste management facility

3 PropertyUse SolidsDetermine wet application method and rate TKN, NH 4 -N, Org NCalculate plant available N (PAN) Volatile solids, OMDetermine carbon content, value as soil amendment FOG, BOD, CODDetermine potential odor, O 2 depletion, soil quality effects, direct plant effects C:NEstimate N mineralization for PAN P, K, S, Ca, Mg, microsCalculate nutrient supply, potential antagonistic effects (e.g. Ca:Mg-induced grass tetany)

4 PropertyUse Heavy metals, B, Mo, Na, Cl, Al, Fe Prevent toxicity to plants and animals, food chain concerns, and soil quality loss; P- binding Synthetic organic compounds Prevent toxicity to plants and animals, food chain concerns, and water quality impairment Electrical conductivity (EC), soluble salts, Na absorption ratio (SAR) Prevent phytotoxicity and soil structure destruction pH, CaCO3 equivalency (CCE) Determine liming potential, micronutrient availability Microbial densityEstimate pathogen risk

5  Water treatment residuals (WTR)  Food processing residuals (FPR) ◦ Plant –based ◦ Animal-based  Incinerator ash

6  Flocculated suspended sediment and organic matter from water treatment facilities  Generated with additions of Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (alum), Al polymer, FeCl 3 and/or lime  Consists largely of soil mineral, amorphous Al and Fe oxides, and organic matter  Low nutrient value and high P-binding medium  Value as a pathogen-free, low heavy metal- containing topsoil substitute and environmental P sorbent

7 VariableConc (%)Lbs per dry ton TotalAvailable Solids26.1 TKN ≤2 NH 4 -N Org-N P ? (P 2 O 5 ) K (K 2 O) Al Fe

8  Sorption comparisons ◦ mg P/kg soil ◦ 15,000-30,000 mg P/kg WTR  Higher P binding by fresh (amorphous) than aged (crystalline) WTR  Phosphorus saturation index (PSI = [P ox ]/[Al ox + Fe ox ]) can be used to calculate WTR application rates for reducing P in drainage from low P-sorbing soils.  Limitations ◦ High EC (15-30 dS/m) in Fe-rich WTR ◦ Highly soluble C can reduce WTR P binding

9  Incidental organic by-product generated by processing agricultural commodities ◦ Feed and spent brewery grain ◦ Fruit and vegetable ◦ Meat and milk  Key compositional factors ◦ N and P ◦ Dissolved and suspended solids ◦ Fats, oils and grease (FOG) ◦ Low pollutant concentrations

10 Property ConcLbs/10,000 gals (0.37 acre-in) TotalAvailable Solids (%) TKN (%) (est) NH 4 -N (%) Org-N (%) min) P (%) (P 2 O 5 ) K (%) (K 2 O) VS=50%, C=29%, C:N=11.3

11 Property ConcentrationTotal lbs/10,000 gals pH7.50 S (%) Ca (%) Mg (%) Na (%) SAR = Na/[(Ca + Mg)/2] 0.5 = 19.4

12 Property ConcLbs per dry ton TotalAvailable Solids25.1 TKN (%) (est) NH 4 -N(%) Org N (%) min) P (%) (P 2 O 5 ) K (%) (K 2 O) VS=71%, C=41%, C:N=4.7

13 PropertyConcentration 100%50% (diluted w/ water) pH Ca (%) Mg (%) Cl (%)10.7 Na (%) SAR 1.92 ? EC (dS/m)34.5 Specific ion toxicity limits: Cl=0.01%, Na=0.007%

14 PropertyConcLbs per dt TotalAvailable Solids (%)10.5 TKN (%) (est) NH 4 -N (%) Org-N (%) % min) P (%) (P 2 O 5 ) K (%) (K 2 O) VS=55%, C=32%, C:N=5.6

15 Property ConcentrationTotal lbs/10,000 gals Density (lbs/gal) ,600 Ca (%) Mg (%) Na (%) SAR = Na/[(Ca + Mg)/2] 0.5 = 42

16 Saturated paste 2:1 water:soil RatingCrops affected -----mmhos/cm----- <1.0<0.40Salinity effects negligible Possibly beans Very slightly saline Clovers, carrots, bell pepper, lettuce Moderately salineBroccoli, potato SalineCotton, alfalfa, grains, bermudagrass Strongly salineOnly salt tolerant grasses, herbaceous plants, trees and certain shrubs will grow >16>3.20Very strongly saline

17 SARUse restriction for varying EC (mmhos/cm) NoneSlight/moderateSevere 0-3> < > < > < > < > <2.9

18 PropertyConcLbs per dry ton TotalAvailable (est) Solids (%)7.92 TKN (%) NH 4 -N (%) Org N (%) min) P (%) (P 2 O 5 ) K (%) (K 2 O) VS=96%, C=55%, C:N=12.0

19 PropertyConcLbs per dry ton TotalAvailable (est) Solids (%)21.5 TKN (%) Net negative N availability (immobilization) NH 4 -N (%) Org N (%) P (%) (P 2 O 5 ) VS=98%, C=57%, C:N=44.9

20 Property ConcLbs per dry ton TotalAvailable (est) Solids (%)4.38 TKN (%) NH 4 -N (%) Org-N (%) min) P (%) (P2O5) K (%) (K2O) VS=90%, FOG=41%, C=52%, C:N=17.6

21  Particularly high in meat and poultry processing sludges  Can clog soil and leaf pores  Surface application w/o incorporation can result in odor problems  Recommend limiting the FOG application rate to 1.5% of soil weight (~30,000 lbs/acre) annually

22 By-productBODTSSFOG g/Mg Fruit Vegetables Grains for oil Processing Production Poultry Beef/pork Fish & shellfish

23 Property ConcProperty Conc Solids (%)44pH7.9 SiO 2 (%)40.4K 2 O (%)1.88 Al 2 O 3 (%)17.3As (ppm) <10.6 Fe 2 O 3 (%)10.4MnO (ppm) 4900 P 2 O 5 (%) 7.31Cd (ppm) 47 CaO (%) 6.95Cr (ppm) 455 Soil Screening Levels (SSLs): As=0.4, Cd=78, Cr=235, Mn=3600

24  Brandt, R.C. and K.S. Martin The food processing residual management manual. Natural Resource, Agriculture and Engineering Service (NRAES). Ithaca, NY. NRAES-92.  J.F. Power and W.A. Dick (Editors) Land application of agricultural, industrial, and municipal by- products. SSSA Book Series No. 6. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, WI.


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