Presentation on theme: "The Importance of shrimp"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Importance of shrimp Shrimp Improvement SystemsThe Importance of shrimpbroodstock and PL quality for successful and sustainable shrimp farmingDean M AkiyamaDavid A LeongShrimp Improvement Systems, India
2 What is the major constraint for commercial shrimp farming sustainability?- Environment?- Production system?- Feed & Feed Resources?- Disease?- Market demand?- Other?2
3 What is the major constraint for commercial shrimp farming sustainability?Shrimp farmer profitability is criticalfor continued growth of the shrimpculture industry.3
4 What are the basic foundation technologies for commercial shrimp farming?- Hatchery: Production of consistent quality seed- Production: Consistent & predictable harvests- Feed: Production of consistent quality feed- Genetics: Production of consistent quality broodstockand the improvement of commercially important traits- Disease: Solutions for hatchery and farming- Market: Access and demand4
5 Human Nature Greed of the farmer always overcomes the need for control and predictability of harvests
6 The chicken industry is a good model for shrimp. It is the most advanced and sophisticated of all animalproduction industries.6
7 Broiler Production Predictability •25 C with 85% humidity??- Cooling panel (water fall) to lower temperature- Fan to pull air past water assisted cooling paneland through house. Also remove excess nitrogen.Replace litter after every cycle to remove feces andbacteria
8 Broiler Production Predictability •75% of all chickens can feed at the same time•40 broilers per feeder•8 broilers per water nipple•20 kg per m, not number of birds
9 Broiler Production Predictability “Guaranteed” production by Breeder Company and Local Distributor• Cycle period:35 days• Final size:2.2 kg• FCR:1.5• Survival Rate:96%• Dressing weight:67%
10 It is easier to change the chicken house, than to change the chicken. Henry Saglio, Geneticist10
11 Controlled Production Systems PL10 stocked in raceways with minimum 6 ppm DO,stabile temperature and pH, will reach 35 g in 100days.Siblings stocked in pond vs perimeter cagesADG 0.18 vs 0.25 (39%)
12 We must always strive to improve technical efficiencies and thereduce the cost of production. This is a never ending process.12
13 Alternative Species Vannamei : Chicken : Lowest cost Monodon : Turkey : LargestStylirostris : Duck : Sweetest
15 SIS has 4 Production Facilities • SIS Florida; 1998- Nucleus Breeding Center for Penaeus vannamei, the Pacific white shrimp. All of SIS P. vannamei stocks originate from Florida.- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and shipabout 120,000 commercial broodstock annually.• SIS Singapore; 2005- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship about 150,000 commercial broodstock annually.• SIS Hawaii; 2006- Nucleus Breeding Center for Penaeus monodon, the black tiger prawn and Penaeus stylirostris, the blue shrimp.- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship about 250,000 commercial broodstock annually.• SIS India; 2012- Shrimp hatchery for P Vannamei.
16 Shrimp Improvement Systems Genetic Program Major genetic discoveries based on tracking of genetic lineperformance from strategic alliances with integrated farms,hatcheries and processing plants
17 Shrimp Improvement Systems Breeding Program • 15 years of commercial genetic improvement and research.• Pure lines selected for specific traits over 20 generations.• Inter- and intra-familiar selection for growth, disease resistance,reproductive capacity and general hardiness.• 12 breeding sessions per year, each one with 40 families. 480 full-pedigree families created and evaluated each year.• Genetic advantage is calculated from the results of field and lab performance tests and pedigree information.• The best families from each breeding session are used to generatefamilies for the next generation.• Working on lines that exhibit resistance to multiple pathogens; i.e.TSV and IMNV.
18 Genetic Family Selection Original familiesin each breeding sessionFamilies divided into two groupsSiblings for disease challenges & field evaluationsSPF siblings maintained at Nucleus Breeding Center (NBC)Data fromfield evaluationsDisease challenge (off-site)Top performing familiesDiscard survivors (never return to NBC)Top families fast-trackedto broodstockGenetically Improved StocksTo Customers
19 Phases of SIS Breeding Program I. MATURATIONII. HATCHERYIII. NURSERYIV. GROWOUT~2 Months1 Month2 Months4 to 7 Months40 g +0 to PL-20PL-20 to 8 g5 to 40 g +Family selection forIntra and Inter-familyPerformance testingInter and intra-familymating rate andselection forfor Growth, Diseaseselection for Growthfecundityhardinessresistance andgeneral hardiness
20 Disease Challenge Facilities Virus challenge selection primarily for TSV and IMNV
21 Commercial Farm Microcosm Testing Facilities Water from commercial production ponds are pumped throughMicrocosm tank system.
22 Commercial Farm Cage Testing Facilities Family selections made at commercial farm site
23 Commercial Farm Cage Testing Facilities Selected families stocked in commercial production pond
24 Broodstock QualityQuality factors for broodstock quality are not clearly defined but rapidly improving.- Genetic pedigree most critical- Virus free (SPF plus)- Stabile production conditions from PL to harvest- Age and size- Minimum 38g female and 35g male- Acclimation: 4 weeks for 40hr transport stress2 weeks for 10hr transport stress
25 Definition of SPF• Specific Pathogen Free Stock refers to the health status of a stock and not a geneticcharacteristic. To be SPF a shrimp must be free of all “known” shrimp virus.• Specific Pathogen Resistant Shrimp refers to a Genetic characteristic- being resistant to a specific pathogen (not general disease).• All commercial broodstock are SPR to some degree but all may not be SPF.
26 Specific Pathogen Resistance (SPR) • Resistance comes in the genes, it is NOT developed by exposure to pathogens. Resistance genes are already present in the genome of the species.• Selection for disease resistance aims to find andconcentrate these genes in the animal.• Challenge tests are run on siblings or progeny in order to gather information. Never on the animals that are used commercial or breeding broodstock.• By applying these principles, SIS has broodstock whichare virus free, SPF and SPR.
27 Routine Disease Monitoring • INDIA, for every shipment , samples are taken and sent to University of Arizona.• Routinely every 3 months, shrimp samples are collectedfrom SIS facilities.• Samples are submitted to independent and Government recognized pathology laboratories.- Dr Don Lightner, University Arizona; Florida, Hawaii, Singapore- US Federal Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS); Florida- Hawaii State Aquatic Veterinarian Service; Hawaii- Agri Food and Veterinary Authority Of Singapore; Singapore• Samples are analyzed for all the diseases and viruses as specified by USMSFP and OIE.
28 SIS “Virus Free” Status • Documented 15 year history of certified SPF status.• Authorized supplier of broodstock and PLs into India, Indonesia, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Malaysia,Philippines, South Africa, Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela,Belize, Honduras, Panama, Surinam, Jamaica, PuertoRico, Cuba and USA.• Authorized to supply SPF PLs and broodstock to USgrowers in Texas, Alabama, and South Carolina.• Annually certified by State of Florida as compliant withBest Management Practices.
30 Biosecurity is Critical • Biosecurity is all of the procedures used toprotect living organisms from contracting, carrying, and spreading diseases.• These include Isolation of site, Traffic control of vehicle and people, Sanitation and Diseasesurveillance procedures.• A proven history is the only evidence ofcommitment and dedication to biosecurity.
31 Biosecurity Protocols at Nucleus Breeding Center • All shrimp reared indoors, protected from birds, crabs and feral animals.• Restrict visitors and then everyone entering facility must changeto SIS clothing and foot ware.• Vehicle tire bath, footbaths and hand washing stations at entryinto each separate culture area.• Entire facility encircled by chain link fence and crab barriers.• Water source is a fossil seawater well. Water is aseptic, exceptfor some anaerobic sulfur bacteria.• All effluents are chlorinated and diverted to dispersion wells. Noeffluent is released into the environment.
35 INDIA produced broodstocks: F2 • Are local produced broodstocks from a biosecure facility from maturation to broodstock harvest?• Without a reliable genetic selection program, what isthe animal performance loss in pond production pergeneration? 10%?• The cost savings of broodstock for the hatchery is insignificant relative to the risk of farm failure.• The fastest way to spread and transmit a disease is through infected broodstock and PLs. Essential tosecure reliable and consistent source of virus freebroodstock and PLs.
36 Quality Post Larvae Quality factors for shrimp post larvae are routine and common industry knowledge.- Necrosis- Size variation- Deformities- Activity level- Luminescent bacteria- Gut-muscle ratio- Ectoparasites- Chromatophores- Muscle Clarity- Stress testsHowever, there are other factors which alsoaffect PL quality.
37 Post Larvae Required Age for Gill Development PL6 gill development not complete. Depends ongrowth rate but between PL8-10.Gill development required for DO and osmoregulation : minimize stress.SurvivalPL678%PL1085%
38 Effect of PL age for salinity stress test: 30 ppt to 5 ppt for 2 hours HarvestedSurvival RateTanks6552837710794
40 PL quality parameters to Pond Performance •pond performance data from 18,000harvested ponds (2,500-5,000 m per pond)• Only ponds which were from one broodstock familyand harvested from one hatchery tank were beinganalyzed (9,500 ponds)• Hatchery tanks harvested, 8,500 tanks producing5-8 million PL10 per tank (55 billion PLs)• PL length and SD/CV adjusted to PL10 parameters• Growth rate in hatchery (PL ADG) was the PLlength divided by total time• Harvested biomass adjusted to 100 days in 1 ha pond area
41 Segmentation of Hatchery Parameters • Low category fall approximately about 25% of the lowest data• Medium take approximately 50% of the mid range data High• High categories were the top 25% of the dataHatchery ParameterLow (25%)Medium (50%)High (25%)Hatchery SR (%)SR < 57.757.7 ≤ SR < 8181 ≤ SR < 100PL Length (mm)Lgth < 8.958.95 ≤ Lgth < 9.529.52 ≤ Lgth < 11.35ADG (mm/day)ADG <≤ DG <≤ DG <CV (%)CV < 4.54.5 ≤ CV < 6.686.68 ≤ CV < 12.45
42 Pond performance based on survival rate in hatchery (2010-13) Hatchery Parameter<58%58-81%82-100%Number of ponds2,0184,0422,012Biomass (MT/ha)12.40b12.53b12.60aMBW (g)18.37b18.51a18.59aADG0.184b0.185a0.186aSurvival (%)79.4a79.4a79.0aHigh hatchery SR produces better biomass, MBW and ADG inponds but not affect survival rate.
43 Pond performance based on PL10 length in hatchery (2010-13) Hatchery Parameter<8.95Number of ponds2,0124,4312,083Biomass (MT/ha)12.44b12.47b12.74aMBW (g)18.33b18.39b18.86aADG0.183b0.184b0.189aSurvival (%)79.1a79.4a79.4aPL10 Length does have positive correlation with pond performance butno affect on survival.
44 Pond performance based on growth (ADG) in hatchery (2010-13) Hatchery Parameter<0.57Number of ponds2,0634,3102,153Biomass (MT/ha)12.24c12.49b12.85aMBW (g)18.28c18.43b18.82aADG0.183c0.184b0.188aSurvival (%)78.8b79.4a79.5aBetter animal growth rate in hatchery had positive correlation with pond performance. This correlation was better than PL length alone.
45 Pond performance based on CV in hatchery (2010-13) Hatchery Parameter<4.5Number of ponds2,1464,1852,140Biomass (MT/ha)12.69a12.66a12.08bMBW (g)18.60a18.54a18.31bADG0.186a0.185a0.183bSurvival (%)79.5a79.2a79.2aBetter animal CV size in the hatchery had positive correlation topond performance but no affect on survival.
46 Luminescent bacteria affect on hatchery performance (2010-11) Hatchery ParameterLumbacNo LumbacNumber of tanks614605Flushed tanks (%)14.4%6.0%Survival (%)63.19a62.25aPL10 length (mm)9.14b9.25aADG PL100.54b0.55aCV size PL105.38a5.50aCompared hatchery tanks were stocked with same family.
47 Luminescent bacteria affect on pond performance (2010-11) Hatchery ParameterLumbacNo LumbacNumber of ponds2,3055,933Harvested biomass (MT/ha)10.97b11.44aMBW (g)17.7b18.2aADG0.177b0.182aFCR1.87b1.82aSurvival (%)72.3b74.6a
48 Conclusion PL Quality Trials • Hatchery tank survival rate, PL10 length, PL10 ADG,CV size and luminescent bacteria all affected pondperformance but not pond survival rate.• Pond survival rate is not a reliable pond performance parameter because difficult to know exactly how PLs have been stocked.• PLs has been estimated to have 10-20% influence onpond production. Success is highly dependant onfarm management.• All other parameters such as stress tests, necrosis,gut muscle ratio, etc…. had no correlation to pondperformance.• All tested PLs were virus free.
49 Quality Post LarvaeThe production of consistent quality post larvae requires a “Commitment to Quality” anddiscipline to implement a quality assuranceprogram.- Virus free: nauplii, PL3, PL8- Minimum tank survival rate: 30%- CV size less than 7- Minimum ADG: 9 mm PL10- Luminescent bacteria freeMust reject or flush tank if less than standard.
50 SIS STRENGTHS & VALUES • Fast growth • Uniform harvest size • Resistance to diseases: TSVand increasingly IMNV• High fecundity• Virus free broodstocks for15 years