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Lisa Sanzenbacher Illinois Institute of Technology Please look at the notes sections in the presentation in “Normal View” if there.

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Presentation on theme: "Lisa Sanzenbacher Illinois Institute of Technology Please look at the notes sections in the presentation in “Normal View” if there."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lisa Sanzenbacher Illinois Institute of Technology Please look at the notes sections in the presentation in “Normal View” if there are technical difficulties with the audio.

2 Outline Interest in Algae Converting Sunlight to Chemical Energy Resulting impacts of manufacturing algal fuel Comparing the impacts to other fuel sources Using Algae to Help Coal Algae as a Transportation Fuel Legal Considerations Part 2…

3 Interest in Algae For over 50 years, algae was known to be a renewable source of energy

4 Reliance on Fossil Energy for Transportation Fuel 95% of the united State’s transportation fuel comes from petroleum United States relies on foreign oil: imports 3 billion gallons per year

5 Department of Energy funded ASP in 1970’s and 1980’s Funding died in 1990’s because of cheap price of petroleum First oil shock facilitated Aquatic Species Program Fuel from algae first discovered in the 1950’s EPA notes: Transportation sector 2 nd largest contributor to GHG emissions Climate change and energy security Issues revitalized algal research

6 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Renewable Portfolio Standards mandate an increase in non-corn based fuels Algae to provide “biomass based diesel” “other advanced fuels” “21 billion gallons by 2022”

7 Research is booming

8 Harnessing the Sun’s Energy Moving away form petroleum allows us to use a renewable source of energy, but it comes with it’s price

9 what is algae? 2 nd Generation Renewable Biofuel characterized by Higher solar energy yield Year-round cultivation Ability to utilize gray waters and non-arable lands Produces biodegradable biofuels Multi-cellular plant Cholorphyll Occurs naturally in lake and streams with high amounts phosphorus and nitrogen

10 converting sunlight into a fuel Growth Photobioreactor Open ponds Photosynthesis 10%solar energy conversion efficiency Carbohydrate, Oxygen  Nutrient Restriction  Less nutrient  less growth, more lipids  De-water  Extraction  Transesterification

11 Algal Impacts Life Cycle Impact Assessment reveals high energy requirements for biodiesel production Electricity for pumping, sparging, dewatering Natural Gas for heating

12 Energy, Economic & Environmental Comparison Energy Output, Price & GHG Contribution DieselSoybeanAlgae Net Energy Ratio* 0.191.640.93 “strain to pump” GHG # 17-71-75 Price per gallon $3.19$4.20$2.50- $25 Fuel Combustion Emissions * MJ consumed/MJ produced # gCO2e/MJ DieselSoybeanAlgae mpg10.93 CO10.57 PAH10.20 pm10.45 SO 2 100 NO x 11.13 * B100 blend

13 Energy & Environmental Comparison Environmental Impacts of Making Fuels Algae Requirements: Sunlight CO2 Water (some) land Nutrients like Nitrogen & Phosphorus

14 Using Algae to Help Coal One industry’s trash is another industry’s treasure

15 From Waste to Resource Algal Requirements  CO 2  Water  Sunlight  Land  Nutrients Coal Plant Waste  CO 2  Waste Water/ effluent  Sulfur  Ash & Slag  NOx If algae promises to be the next source of transportation fuel Requires a lot of clean CO2- more than what atmosphere can provide 40 billion gallons algae fuel requires CO2 from 32% of all US coal power plant

16 IGCC as Source of CO 2 GE's IGCC with CO 2 capture process Integrated Gas Combined Cycle gasifies coal to H 2 and CO (“syngas”) Removes impurities like sulfur Ability to use Illinois bituminous coal H 2 and CO fires first gas turbine to produce electricity Exhaust heat fires second steam turbine generator to produce electricity again CO combusted with controlled O 2 to produce CO 2 CO2 can be sequestered © The General Electric Company. This material may not be copied or distributed in whole or in part, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner

17 IGCC as Source of Additional Algal Inputs Eni Project, Monterotondo, Italy Sequestered carbon directed to nearby algae plant Convert NOx into ammonia, a fertilizer for algae React CO with H 2 to create methanol CO + 2H 2  CH 3 -OH Methanol is a necessary and expensive reactant to create biodiesel Future Gen’s IGCC Plant 1 – 2.5 MMT CO2 50,000 – 120,000 gallons biodiesel annual

18 Algae as a Source of Biomass Algae can make 30% oil 70% dry biomass Midwest Generation Biomass Cofiring Test with 10% biomass blending Lower fuel costs 3.5 – 5% SO2 reduction No reduction in pm, NOx

19 Siting Algae Plant adjacent to IGCC Plant Siting Algae plant near existing IGCC plants Legal Benefits No extensive energy to pump thousands of feet underground Potential SDWA issues averted, possibly CERCLA? Economic benefits $400,000 per MW to sequester Carbon Typical 500MW plant  $200 million Global Energy Wabash River LP ASU and Steam Injection Algae + IGCC still not a “cure all” Mining coal causes Acid Mine Drainage

20 Algae as a Transportation Fuel

21 Biodiesel + Hybrid Vehicles

22 First Car to run on algae biodiesel 2005 Algaeus 2009 Peugeot 3008 HYbrid 4 Spring 2011 Algae + Hybrid Vehicles still not a “cure all” NOx emissions contribute to upper respiratory tract infections

23 Legal Implications Considerations for Algae Biodiesel

24 Regulatory Questions Helping the Electricity Generation Sector  CAA  NSR?  SDWA  CWA  CERCLA Helping the Transportation Sector  CAFE standards  EPA + NHTSA joint ruling  34.1 mpg  §202 CAA  RPS

25 Conclusions Algae is a good start… “algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel”

26 Conclusions But algae is not the answer But… “analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040”

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