Presentation on theme: "MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHALENGES IN ZAMBIA by MORGAN KATATI MINING INDABA NDOLA 17- 19 th JULY, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
MINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHALENGES IN ZAMBIA by MORGAN KATATI MINING INDABA NDOLA 17- 19 th JULY, 2013
Presentation Overview Background of the Environmental Management Agency (ZIEM) Mining and the Environment Pollution associated with mining and effects How can communities detect pollution Action that can be taken by the communities Role of environmental agencies Role of civic organisations Critical points
Background of ZIEM Zambia Institute of environmental management is a member based institution. Registered as non governmental organization in Zambia MISSION STATEMENT promotion of Environmental Governance and sustainable environmental management Ensure the upholding of the Environmental Rights of citizens, that is:- The right to clean, safe and healthy environment for all The right of access to environmental information
Function of ZIEM 1.Lobby & Advocacy 2.Environmental Management 3.Policy and Practice 4.Environmental Governance 5.Environmental Training 6.Climate Change Adaptation & mitigation 7.Facilitating, promoting and coordinating research in environment and natural resources.
Mining and the Environment Historically, much focus in the mining industry as well as in legislative frame work itself, has been on mining the mineral ore at a super profit at the expense of the environment. It has to be noted that mining operations, including associated facilities and infrastructure involves permanent alteration of existing landforms, disturbance of flora and fauna, disruption of habitats, social and economic impacts due to high level of environmental degradation and contamination. Residual or permanent environmental impacts at decommissioning stage of mines that will need to be managed with regards to public safety hazards and risk, potential sources of ongoing pollution, future land use and resources demands, ecological compatibility, community expectations and aesthetics are inevitable.
Pollution associated with mining Air pollution but what is air pollution????
Definition of air pollution Air Pollution is the introduction of substances or surplus energy as waste products of human activities into the atmosphere which, directly or indirectly, adversely alter or destroy the quality of the environment or cause undesirable effects on man, animals, vegetation and materials.
Sources of Air pollution in mining Fugitive dust from open cast mining Access roads Slimes Dams Ore Processing Plants
Effects of Air Pollution Natural Ecosystems and Crops – Acidification and eutrophication – Ground level ozone – Increased sensitivity of plant species to pest attack – Shifts in rainfall patterns and temperature regimes – Diminished bio diversity e.g. Sensitive ecosystems
Cont... Air pollution causes a serious threat to human health – 487,000 premature deaths in Asia every year (WHO, 2001)
Cont...... Economic Impacts Corrosion Studies in Europe have shown that the damage per tonne of SO 2 emitted ranged from US$ 86 to US$1,614. In Mufulira town, on the copper belt of Zambia, the life span of roofing sheets on houses was reduced 12 fold making maintenance more costly by at least US$0.6 million.
Indicators of air pollution to communities Dust film of vegetation, infrastructure etc Corrosion of metal roofing sheets Increase in air pollution related illnesses: wheezing, coughing, cheeky eyes Loss of bio-diversity Thermal inversions Reduced plant growth
Indicators of Air Pollution vegetation covered with dust at a limestone mining company
Issues to be considered by mining companies Identification of impacts Epidemiological assessment – Baseline of disease occurrence – Location of vulnerable population groups – Dispersion modeling Assessment of impacts – Spatial, temporal, magnitude, reversibility, probability, dose response. Legal requirements – Design specifications, velocity, particulate/ gas concentrations, Identification of appropriate abatement measures. Assessment of residual impacts.
WATER POLLUTION Mines largely pollute water sources through discharge of untreated effluent into rivers, dams and under ground.
Effects of water Pollution Impacts of effluent discharge into the environment: Eutrophication due high nitrates and phosphates Oxygen depletion in water bodies affecting aquatic life. Drinking water purification cost skyrockets. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in organisms Spread of water borne disease eg cholera and typhoid General water quality is affected leading to health implication
How can communities notice water pollution Change in water colour Development of smell Drying of vegetation Disease outbreak (water borne) Change in water teste Fish deaths and other aquatic life forms Uncontrolled water weeds Reduced bio-diversity Presents of new species in water
Water weeds is an indication of water pollution
How should communities react pollution issues Report the issues to respective environmental Agencies for Action Inform interested civic organisations for appropriate action to be taken Approach civil courts in the event of socio- economic losses to claim damages
Role of Environmental Agencies Regulate and monitor pollution loads into water sources and the atmosphere Arraign offenders before the courts Carry out licensing programmes that reflects the correct level of pollution from mining companies ( polluter pays principle) Provide economic incentives to promote voluntary compliance and reduction of pollution Ambient air and water monitoring Bio-monitoring
Role of Civic organisation Partner with environmental Agencies to organise and educate communities on their environmental rights Educate communities on basic environmental law Do advocacy on behalf of communities Play an over sight role on environmental agencies Train communities on basic environmental monitoring and reporting
Challenges in proving air and water pollution cases before the courts RELIABLEEVIDENCE EXPERT EVIDENCE ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES PHOTOGRAPHICEVIDENCE SCIENTIFIC REPORTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF AIR, WATER AND LAND DISCHARGES
Cont... Samples properly captured “Chain of custody” of samples, cradle to grave Transportation and storage of samples in manner preserving integrity Analysis pursuant to good laboratory practices, including properly calibrated and clean equipment
Critical points Socio-economic development in the long term is affected by environmental pollution, so lets deal with it now!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Thank You Morgan Katati Zambia Institute of Environmental Management Tel: +260 97 7 324410 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org/ email@example.com