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Presented by: Scott Wallace, P.E. (612) 802-2329 Long-Term Hydrocarbon Remediation Using Treatment Wetlands.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by: Scott Wallace, P.E. (612) 802-2329 Long-Term Hydrocarbon Remediation Using Treatment Wetlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented by: Scott Wallace, P.E. (612) 802-2329 Long-Term Hydrocarbon Remediation Using Treatment Wetlands

2 References for Industrial Wetland Design Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) Small Scale Constructed Wetland Systems (Wallace & Knight, 2006) Treatment Wetlands 2 nd Edition (Kadlec & Wallace, 2009)

3 Recent Industrial Wetland Examples BP, Casper Wyoming Refinery, USA BP, Lima Ohio, USA ARCO Wellsville New York Refinery USA Williams Pipeline, (Watertown, South Dakota) USA El Paso Energy (El Dorado, Kansas) USA Shell, Scotford I Upgrader, Alberta, Canada Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, USA Heathrow Airport, London UK Edmonton Airport, Alberta, Canada Occidental Petroleum, Cano Limon, Colombia Rosebel Gold Mine, Suriname Sangachal, Azerbaijan

4 Industries Using Wetlands Oil & Gas (upstream & downstream) Chemical Manufacturing Landfills Mining Food Processing Airports

5 Types of Treatment Wetlands Surface Flow (SF) Horizontal Subsurface Flow (HSSF) Vertical Flow (VF) Sludge Dewatering Reed Beds Intensified Wetlands – Aerated (cold climates) – fill-and-drain (warm climates) – reactive media (ammonia, phosphorus, etc) – industrial wastewaters

6 Surface Flow Wetlands Kadlec & Wallace, 2008

7 Surface Flow Wetlands Champion Paper, Pensacola Florida

8 Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetlands Wallace & Knight, 2006

9 Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetland Wildflower Meadows: 90-person treatment system

10 Vertical Flow Wetland IWA, 2000

11 Vertical Flow Wetland Rousillon, France

12 Sludge Dewatering Reed Bed Kadlec & Wallace, 2008 Skovby, Denmark: 8000-person treatment wetland

13 Main Treatment Mechanisms Adsorption of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons – Contaminant retention time much greater than hydraulic retention time Microbial degradation of organic compounds Settling of particulate compounds Oxidation and reduction of nitrogen compounds Precipitation of metals Use of intensification methods (aeration and reactive medias to accelerate treatment)

14 Natural vs. Mechanical Systems LEAST MOST Natural Systems Intensified Wetlands Mechanical Treatment Systems Area Requirements MOSTLEAST Energy and O&M Needs

15 Treatment Wetland Design Basis Tanks-in-series, N typically ranges from 3 to 6 Value of N is different for reactive chemicals vs. tracers Spatial variability of biodegradation rate represented by P Important for complex organic chemistries (such as produced waters

16 Climate Range of Treatment Wetlands Wellsville, New York Northern Sahara, Libya

17 Casper, Wyoming Casper

18 BP – Casper, Wyoming Refinery Operated 1912 to 1991 37,000 m 3 of LNAPL recovered to date Extensive smear zone due to river flooding 50 to 100 years to remediate site High mountain west: -35 o C

19 BP – Casper Wyoming Refinery

20 Casper Reuse Plan SF Wetlands HSSF Wetlands

21 Casper Pilot Wetland System With and without insulating mulch Vertical upward flow With and without aeration 4 cells Phytokinetics, Inc.

22 Casper Rate Coefficients AerationNo Aeration CompoundWetland Mulch No MulchWetland Mulch No Mulch Benzene518456317226 BTEX356311257244 TPH1058965725579 MTBE64603522 k A, m/yr, based on 3 TIS Wallace & Kadlec, 2005

23 Full-Size System from Pilot Data Wallace & Kadlec, 2005

24 Casper Intensified Wetland Cell

25 Wetland Aeration System

26 Casper System Construction


28 Casper Benzene Data 2004 - 2006 Benzene effluent at Outfall 001 consistently below detection levels <0.01 mg/L

29 Wellsville, New York Wellsville

30 Wellsville Wetland System

31 Wellsville Treatment Concept Cascade Aerators (iron oxidation) Sedimentation Pond (iron precipitation and settling) Surface Flow Wetlands (hydrocarbon removal) Vertical Flow Wetlands (pH adjustment)

32 November 2008 Start Up Cold climate design (ice formation) Thermal calculations necessary

33 Sedimentation Pond (Iron Removal)


35 Surface Flow Wetlands (Hydrocarbon Removal)



38 Vertical Flow Wetlands for Alkalinity Addition Wellsville New York Wallace et al., 2011

39 Wellsville New York pH Buffering

40 Overall Wellsville System

41 Conclusions Industrial treatment wetlands are already being used in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and Australia Surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow, vertical flow, and intensified wetlands are all being used by industry Use of wetlands for industrial treatment wetlands is increasing on two major fronts: – Range of applications in different industries – Construction of wetlands in different geographic regions

42 Thank you for your time Treatment Wetlands for Industry

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