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TERM PAPER- CEL 795 EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN REMOVING AMMONIA FROM YAMUNA WATER IN DELHI Group Members Vineet Kumar : 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "TERM PAPER- CEL 795 EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN REMOVING AMMONIA FROM YAMUNA WATER IN DELHI Group Members Vineet Kumar : 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 TERM PAPER- CEL 795 EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN REMOVING AMMONIA FROM YAMUNA WATER IN DELHI Group Members Vineet Kumar : 2014 CEV 2851 Subhash Chandra Verma : 2014 CEV 2781 Umesh Kumar : 2014 CEV 2095 Under the guidance of Dr. Arun Kumar, IIT, Delhi

2 Background To study some of the prevalent methods for ammonia remediation from surface waters, and to indicate which among them is best suited for water treatment plants in Delhi. Presence of heavy concentration of ammonia in Yamuna water is a serious problem for Delhi water treatment plants as this frequently forces these WTPs to stop their production or remain shut down [15, 16, 17, 24] till ammonia levels get reduced to permissible limits of 0.5 ppm [16]. Excess ammonia in drinking water could lead to difficult and complicated chlorination process, because ammonia would react with chlorine to form disinfection by-product, which could damage human nervous system, are carcinogenic in nature, and deteriorate taste and odour of water [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 25]. It, therefore, becomes imperative to take steps to remove ammonia from the water before disinfection so as to supply safe potable water to the consumers.

3 Method used Processes studied for effective removal of ammonia upto permissible levels from the surface waters : Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) [19, 20] Hollow-fiber membrane contactors [14] Modified clinoptilolite zeolite [21] Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) [4] Adsorption onto natural zeolite [1] Trickling filter [5] Hybrid membrane process [22] Biosorbents [2]

4 Findings Process using Modified Clinoptilolite zeolite found to be best suited for Yamuna waters. This process is stable, suits automation, quality control, easy maintenance, and has very high ammonia removal efficiency (98.46%) with economy of operation. Process using Biosorbents has high ammonia removal efficiency (97 to 100%) from polluted waters. Can be adopted for ammonia removal from the industries discharging untreated effluent into the river Yamuna. Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) and Hollow-fiber membrane contactors, have high ammonia removal efficiency (98.2% & >99% resp.), however, these need to be studied further for their economical viability and ease of operation. Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) process has comparatively low ammonia removal rate (84.10%), though this process can be adopted for simultaneous removal of ammonia and manganese, with manganese removal rate of 86.1%. …..contd……

5 Findings The process of Trickling filter again has comparatively low ammonia removal rate (82%), though this process can be adopted for simultaneous removal of ammonia, iron and manganese from potable water. The process of adsorption onto natural zeolite has low ammonia removal rate (69%), though this process can be adopted for simultaneous removal of ammonia and humic acid, having best performance at pH 7, which overcomes the necessity of pH manipulation for maximizing the adsorption, making the treatment process more cost-effective. None of the research papers reviewed by us broadly and thoroughly discusses the cost (of material or process as a whole) per litre production of potable water. As such, this aspect remains to be explored in order that economically viable solutions, along with ease of operation and maintenance, can be worked out for effective ammonia remediation at conventional water treatment as well as small industrial units/communities discharging their untreated effluents/waste into the river Yamuna.

6 Issues and directions for future research Pilot studies for all the processes reviewed may be carried out for Yamuna waters under various influent and operation conditions in order to find out the optimal ammonia removal rate/efficiency, for the applicability of these processes to real water treatment. Cost of material as well as application cost of processes for effective ammonia remediation need to be studied further.

7 References [1]Moussavia,G., Talebia, S., Farrokhib, M, & Saboutic, R.M., The investigation of mechanism, kinetic and isotherm of ammonia and humic acid co-adsorption onto natural zeolite. Chemical Engineering Journal 171 (2011) 1159– [2] Suneetha, M., & Ravindhranath, K., Removal of ammonia from polluted waters using biosorbents derived from powders of leaves, stems or barks of some plants. Der Pharma Chemica (2012) 4 (1): [3]Metcalf & Eddy, Wastewater Engineering-Treatment and Reuse, McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. [4] Han, M., Zhao, Z., Gao, W., & Cui, F., Study on the factors affecting simultaneous removal of ammonia and manganese by pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) for drinking water pre-treatment. Bioresource Technology 145 (2013) 17–24. [5]Tekerlekopoulou, A.G., & Vayenas, D.V., Simultaneous biological removal of ammonia, iron and manganese from potable water using a trickling filter. Biochemical Engineering Journal 39 (2008) 215–220. [6]Krasner, S.W., Mitch, W.A., McCurry, D.L., Hanigan, D., & Westerhoff, P., Formation, precursors, control, and occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water: A review. Water Research 47 (2013) [7] Kasuga, I., Nakagaki, H., Kurisu, F., & Furumai, H., Predominance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea on granular activated carbon used in a full-scale advanced drinking water treatment plant. Water Research 44(2010) [8]Akker, B.v.d., Holmes, M., Pearce, P., Cromar, N.J., & Fallowfield, H.J., Structure of nitrifying biofilms in a high-rate trickling filter designed for potable water pre-treatment. Water Research 45 (2011) [9]Peavy, H.S., Rowe, D.R., & Tchobanoglous, G., Environmental Engineering. McGraw- Hill Book Company. [10]Umezawa, Y., Hosono, T., Onodera, S., Siringan, F., Buapeng, S., Delinom, R., Yoshimizu, C., Tayasu, I., Nagata, T., & Taniguchi, M., Erratum to ‘Sources of nitrate and ammonium contamination in groundwater under developing Asian megacities’. Science of the Total Environment 407(2009) [11]Shrimali, M., & Singh, K.P., New methods of nitrate removal from water. Environmental Pollution 112 (2001) [12]IS:10500 (1992)-Reaffirmed Indian Standard Specifications for drinking water. [13]Letter to the Editor, Removal of nitrate ions from water by activated carbons (ACs)—Influence of surface chemistry of ACs and coexisting chloride and sulfate ions. Applied Surface Science 276 (2013) 838– 842.

8 [14]Ashrafzadeh, S.N, & Khorasani, Z., Ammonia removal from aqueous solutions using hollow-fiber membrane contactors. Chemical Engineering Journal 162 (2010) 242–249. [15]Times of India, ‘Ammonia in water, supply to be hit’. [16]The Hindu, New Delhi-25 Jan, ‘Ammonia levels in Yamuna water reaches danger mark’. [17]Indian Express New Service, New Delhi, ‘High ammonia in Yamuna: City water supply hit for second day’. [18]Han-Seung Kima, Hiroyuki Katayamab, Satoshi Takizawab, Shinichiro Ohgakib Development of a microfilter separation system coupled with a high dose of powdered activated carbon for advanced water treatment. Desalination 186 (2005) 215–226. [19]Zhang, S., Wang, Y., He, We., Wu, M., Xing, M., Yang, J., Gao, N., & Yin, D., Responses of biofilm characteristics to variations in temperature and NH4 +-N loading in a moving-bed biofilm reactor treating micro-polluted raw water. Bioresource Technology 131 (2013) 365–373. [20] Nicollella, C., Loosdrecht, M.C.M., & Heijnen, J.J., Wastewater Treatment with particulate biofilm reactors. Journal of Biotechnology 80 (2000) [21]Huo, H., Lin, H., Dong, Y., Cheng, H., & Wang, H., Cao, L., Ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed waters by modified clinoptilolite. Journal of Hazardous Materials 229– 230 (2012) 292– 297 [22]Stoquart, C., Servais, P., Barbeau, B., Ammonia removal in the carbon contactor of a hybrid membrane process. Water Research 67 (2014) [23] Zhang, S., Wang, Y., He, W., Wu, M., Xing, M., Yang, J., Gao, N., & Pan, M., Impacts of temperature and nitrifying community on nitrification kinetics in a moving-bed biofilm reactor treating polluted raw water. Chemical Engineering Journal 236 (2014) 242–250. [24]Upadhyay, R., Dasgupta, N., Hasan, A., & Upadhyay, S.K., Managing water quality of River Yamuna in NCR Delhi. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 36 (2011) 372–378. [25]Abdullah, Md. P., Yee, L.F., Ata, S., Abdullah, A., Ishak, B., & Abidin, K.N.Z., The study of interrelationship between raw water quality parameters, chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 34 (2009) 806–811.


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