Presentation on theme: "UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT’S PROPOSAL SEMESTER I 2012/2013 Biohydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Using Immobilized Mixed Culture (Sludge)"— Presentation transcript:
UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT’S PROPOSAL SEMESTER I 2012/2013 Biohydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Using Immobilized Mixed Culture (Sludge) NAME: NUR FAHRIZA BINTI MOHD ALI ID: AE09007 SUPERVISOR: PROF. DR. ZULARISAM BIN AB WAHID
INTRODUCTION The demand of energy has been increased and causes to depletion of non- renewable energy such as coal, gasoline, petroleum and metal cores. Nowadays, this problem arises at every country and a lot of researches have been carried out to utilize biomass as alternative renewable resource (Levin et al. 2004, Vijayaraghavan et al. 2006). Hydrogen is proved as a viable alternative source: CleanRenewable High energy yield nature Water is the sole end combustion
Biologically production of hydrogen can be achieved by two methods: The palm oil mill industry in Malaysia has been recognized as the one who discharges the largest pollution load into the river compared to other country who also implemented palm oil industry (Hwang et al., 1978). 15.2 million tons of waste water known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is an acidic brownish colloidal suspension wastewater high total oxygen demand (COD) high biological oxygen demand (BOD) It is discharged at temperature of 80-90 o C Photosynthetic bacteria and algae under light condition and the other, (photo-fermentation) Anaerobic fermentative bacteria under dark condition, (dark- fermentation)
Immobilized-cell system has been common alternative to the suspended cell system in continuous operations: Operated at high dilution rate or low retention times Gifted with a local anaerobic environment Well suitable to dark hydrogen fermentation Flexible to environment distract Process stabilityReusable Higher biological activity
PROBLEM STATEMENT Hydrogen production from POME wastewater is low. Most of the study for hydrogen production on applied suspended cell- systems often encounter problem with washout of biomass at high dilution rate and would require the recycling of biomass from the effluent to maintain sufficient cell density for continuous hydrogen production.
OBJECTIVES To compare between suspended and immobilized cell reactor for hydrogen production at different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT). To study the effect of beads size on hydrogen production.
SCOPE OF STUDY At different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) Compare between suspended and immobilized cell reactor Determine the amount of hydrogen production Effect of immobilized beads size Palm oil mill effluent (POME) Determine the characteristic of the POME
LITERATURE REVIEW Due to the characteristic which is reliable and sustainable energy for the future, the production of biological hydrogen (biohydrogen) from biomass has received wide attentions (Debabrata and Veziroglu, 2001, Levin et al., 2004). The improvement of fermentation process for POME is important because POME is one of relatively potential as a substrate for generation of hydrogen (Atif et al., 2005, Vijayaraghavan and Ahmad, 2006, O-Thong et al., 2007,). Due to its characteristic with high organic content, biohydrogen production could be achieved via dark fermentation (Yusoff et al., 2009). Dark fermentation has many advantages such as high rate of cell growth, operation without light source and no limitation oxygen problems. Thus, dark fermentation is much better for POME to increase generation of hydrogen.
Many researchers investigated the effects of HRTs on the biohydrogen production rate, biogas composition and biomass concentration in the liquid effluent and the experimental results showed that different HRTs influenced the biohydrogen production (Zhang et al., 2006, Wu et al., 2008). Immobilized cells are more tolerant to environment distraction, process stability, reusable and higher biological activity (Singh L. et al., 2012). Production of hydrogen also may affected by the beads size (Singh L. et al., 2012).
METHODOLOGY The project will be conducted in eight phases: PHASE 1 To identify material characterization of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The material characterization will be focused on identifying the chemical properties of the POME. PHASE 2 To determine organic pollution found in POME. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test will be conducted. COD is the quantity needed to chemically oxidize the organic compound in sample, converted to carbon dioxide and water. PHASE 3 The concentration of ammonia nitrogen in water samples is determined. The POME sample will be tested with Ammonium Nitrate test (NH3-N) using Salicylate Method with high range.
PHASE 4 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is carried out to determine dissolved oxygen in POME. BOD is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. PHASE 5 Total suspended solid (TSS) testing measures the total concentration of suspended (non-soluble) solid in the POME sample. PHASE 6 Volatile suspended solids (VSS) test may be performed in order to determine the concentration of volatile suspended solids.
PHASE 7 The seed sludge preparation is carried out for hydrogen production. The seed which is obtained from the palm oil mill wastewater treatment is used as inoculums. PHASE 8 The hydrogen production is continued by make preparation immobilized sludge bead. The production of hydrogen is compared between suspended and immobilized cell system in different HRT. The effects of beads size is also analyze. The data is tabulated.
EXPECTED OUTCOME There are differences between suspended and immobilized cell reactor for hydrogen production at different hydraulic retention time (HRT). The beads size has effects on hydrogen production.
GANTT CHART MONTHSEPTEMBEROCTOBERNOVEMBERDICEMBER WEEK/TASKS1234123412341234 Search topic and identified specific objectives Search journal Prepare draft chapter 1 until 3 Search and prepare for equipment to complete draft and proposal Submit draft Finalized proposal Presentation for PSM 1
CONCLUSION In this study, I will used of immobilized sludge using anaerobic fermentation for hydrogen production. In this study, dark fermentation consists of high rate of cell growth, no light energy required and no oxygen limitation problems to perform and it has ability to run on low capital cost. The immobilized bead is used to prove that its different sizes has effects on hydrogen production.