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Use of Ultrafiltration for Mercury Removal CMS Land Company Little Traverse Bay Environmental Project (LTBEP) (Bay Harbor Development, Petoskey, MI) Prepared.

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Presentation on theme: "Use of Ultrafiltration for Mercury Removal CMS Land Company Little Traverse Bay Environmental Project (LTBEP) (Bay Harbor Development, Petoskey, MI) Prepared."— Presentation transcript:

1 Use of Ultrafiltration for Mercury Removal CMS Land Company Little Traverse Bay Environmental Project (LTBEP) (Bay Harbor Development, Petoskey, MI) Prepared by: Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc. Prepared by: Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc Commonwealth Blvd., Ste. 300 Ann Arbor, MI Traverse City, MI Ph: (734) Ph: (231) Fax (734) Fax: (231) Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc Commonwealth Blvd., Ste. 300 Ann Arbor, MI Traverse City, MI Ph: (734) Ph: (231) Fax (734) Fax: (231) Peter F. Hill, P.E. Jeremy S. Lewandowski Mark D. Mikesell, Ph.D. William E. Stone Peter F. Hill, P.E. Jeremy S. Lewandowski Mark D. Mikesell, Ph.D. William E. Stone 2011 MWEA Annual Conference Shanty Creek Resort, Bellaire MI June 28, 2011

2 SUMMARY OF LITTLE TRAVERSE BAY ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT (LTBEP) GOALS & RESULTS Characterize Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) Leachate for Hg, TSS & other parameters. Characterize Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) Leachate for Hg, TSS & other parameters. Determine effectiveness of Ultrafiltration (UF) Technology to Treat CKD Leachate. Determine effectiveness of Ultrafiltration (UF) Technology to Treat CKD Leachate. Characterize Effluent from UF to Determine Compatibility with WQS. Characterize Effluent from UF to Determine Compatibility with WQS. Demonstrate CKD Leachate can be Treated & Discharged to Little Traverse Bay (LTB). Demonstrate CKD Leachate can be Treated & Discharged to Little Traverse Bay (LTB). Assist CMS Land Co. (CMSL) in obtaining Permits/Authorizations to discharge Leachate. Assist CMS Land Co. (CMSL) in obtaining Permits/Authorizations to discharge Leachate. UF achieved 97% Hg Removal (1.8 ng/L achieved). UF achieved 97% Hg Removal (1.8 ng/L achieved). MDEQ considers UF as Best Available Technology (BAT) for this site. MDEQ considers UF as Best Available Technology (BAT) for this site. 2

3 BAY HARBOR – SITE LOCATION Photo Source: Google Earth. Little Traverse Bay (Lake Michigan) 3 EmmetCounty CMSL Bay Harbor Site located 5 miles west of Petoskey CMSL Bay Harbor Site located 5 miles west of Petoskey Located on south shore of Little Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan. Located on south shore of Little Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan.

4 HISTORICAL USE OF SITE 4 Photo Source: / Source: Tip of the Mitt Watershed Council, CEMENT-MANUFACTURING TIMELINE: CEMENT-MANUFACTURING TIMELINE: Petoskey Portland Cement Co. formed Petoskey Portland Cement Co. formed – Penn-Dixie Cement Co. purchased land – Penn-Dixie Cement Co. purchased land – Cement-Making Operations end - Penn-Dixie files for bankruptcy – Cement-Making Operations end - Penn-Dixie files for bankruptcy.

5 5 Leftover material from grinding /heating limestone + other raw materials is CKD. Leachate formed when water contacts CKD…caustic & contains heavy metals (mercury, arsenic, & lead). Estimated 2.5 Million CY of CKD waste left behind. CEMENT MAKING PROCESS & CKD Photo Source: Friends of the Jordan, Concerning the Bay Harbor Cercla Site, Presentation by Edward E. Timm, Ph.D., P.E. Source: Tip of the Mitt Watershed Council,

6 Photo Source: Friends of the Jordan, Concerning the Bay Harbor Cercla Site, Presentation by Edward E. Timm, Ph.D., P.E. BAY HARBOR – RE-DEVELOPMENT OF SITE – Bay Harbor Resort Properties Ltd.1993 – Bay Harbor Resort Properties Ltd. & CMSL team to develop site.

7 ISSUES WITH SITE 7 Source: Tip of the Mitt Watershed Council, Oct – Caustic groundwater found leaching into LTB. Oct – Caustic groundwater found leaching into LTB – East & West CKD areas show detectable concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium and zinc – East & West CKD areas show detectable concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium and zinc. Photo Source: Friends of the Jordan, Concerning the Bay Harbor Cercla Site, Presentation by Edward E. Timm, Ph.D., P.E.

8 ISSUES WITH SITE (CONT’D) 8 Source: Tip of the Mitt Watershed Council, – CKD piles contoured, covered with topsoil & turned into golf course – CKD piles contoured, covered with topsoil & turned into golf course – Leachate still reaching Seep 2… 1997 – Leachate still reaching Seep 2… Seepage collection line installed. Collected Leachate transported to Petoskey’s WWTP. Collected Leachate transported to Petoskey’s WWTP – CMSL constructed Pre-Treatment Facility to ↓ pH of Leachate & built discharge to Petoskey’s sanitary sewer – CMSL constructed Pre-Treatment Facility to ↓ pH of Leachate & built discharge to Petoskey’s sanitary sewer. Photo Source: Friends of the Jordan, Concerning the Bay Harbor Cercla Site, Presentation by Edward E. Timm, Ph.D., P.E.

9 ISSUES WITH SITE (CONT’D) 9 Source: Tip of the Mitt Watershed Council, Petoskey WWTP complications… Petoskey WWTP complications… Leachate drained directly to LTB for several months. Sept – HIGH pH readings in LTB lead to Public Health Advisory from Sept – HIGH pH readings in LTB lead to Public Health Advisory from NW Michigan Health Dept. & restricted access for > 1 mile of BH shoreline. CMSL accepts environmental liability due to prior agreements. CMSL accepts environmental liability due to prior agreements. Feb – Admin. Order of Consent issued by EPA… Feb – Admin. Order of Consent issued by EPA… CMSL to take immediate remedial action & ultimately “remove, isolate or contain” the CKD.

10 Photo Source: Google Earth. 10 REMEDIATION EFFORTS: COLLECT & TREAT BAY HARBOR DEVELOPMENT PRE-TREATMENT FACILITY Short-Term Response: Collect & Pre-Treat 1. System of collection drains/trenches: 2. Pump to Pre-Treatment Seep 1 Facility(↓ pH) Seep 1 Facility(↓ pH) Seep 2W (Seep 2 + West CKD) Seep 2W (Seep 2 + West CKD) Edge Drain Edge Drain Total Leachate Collection System (TLC) Total Leachate Collection System (TLC) Ongoing Efforts: Plan for extensive testing of hydrology/geology. Plan for extensive testing of hydrology/geology. Up-gradient groundwater interceptor wells. Up-gradient groundwater interceptor wells.

11 – Lake Michigan – (Little Traverse Bay) Map Source: Barr Environmental 11 COLLECTION DRAIN LOCATIONS

12 Photo Source: Friends of the Jordan, Concerning the Bay Harbor Cercla Site, Presentation by Edward E. Timm, Ph.D., P.E. 12 LEACHATE INTERCEPT SYSTEM

13 13 BAY HARBOR DEVELOPMENT PRE-TREATMENT FACILITY

14 14 BAY HARBOR DEVELOPMENT PRE-TREATMENT FACILITY (CONT’D) Frac Tanks to Store Pre-Treated Leachate) Frac Tanks to Store Pre-Treated Leachate) Automated Acid Injection System Automated Acid Injection System Loading/ Loading/ Transport System

15 pH-neutralize ~ 150,000 gpd w/ concentrated H 2 SO 4. pH-neutralize ~ 150,000 gpd w/ concentrated H 2 SO 4. Storage in Frac Tanks. Storage in Frac Tanks. Treated leachate transported to deep well injection facility near Gaylord, MI. Treated leachate transported to deep well injection facility near Gaylord, MI. Leachate previously transported to GT Co. Septage Treatment System (discharges to TC WWTP). Leachate previously transported to GT Co. Septage Treatment System (discharges to TC WWTP). Period when leachate transported to Petoskey’s WWTP. Period when leachate transported to Petoskey’s WWTP. 15 BAY HARBOR DEVELOPMENT PRE-TREATMENT FACILITY (CONT’D)

16 Dark brown in color Dark brown in color Caustic (pH >12) Caustic (pH >12) TDS = 2,700 to 21,000 mg/L TDS = 2,700 to 21,000 mg/L TSS = Non-Detect to 17 mg/L TSS = Non-Detect to 17 mg/L Mercury = 15 to 544 ng/L Mercury = 15 to 544 ng/L Copper = 19 to 84 µg/L Copper = 19 to 84 µg/L Vanadium = 42 to 130 µg/L Vanadium = 42 to 130 µg/L High COD & TOC High COD & TOC Low BOD Low BOD BAY HARBOR – LEACHATE 16 Brown color, TOC & COD due to dissolved organic acids…fulvic, humic, tannic, etc. Brown color, TOC & COD due to dissolved organic acids…fulvic, humic, tannic, etc. CKD originally placed in cedar swamp. CKD originally placed in cedar swamp. pH, TDS & metals due to groundwater flow through CKD piles. pH, TDS & metals due to groundwater flow through CKD piles.

17 COSTLY $$ !! Trucks run 24/7/365 disposal to deep well injection. Public opposition to both deep well injection & constant trucking. CMSL begins to explore other options !! 17 BAY HARBOR – LEACHATE (CONT’D)

18 CMSL has done extensive research on Hg treatment & disposal tech., including: CMSL has done extensive research on Hg treatment & disposal tech., including: On-site deep well injection; On-site deep well injection; Discharge into municipal sanitary sewer (City of Petoskey); Discharge into municipal sanitary sewer (City of Petoskey); Creation of interceptor trenches, collection and hauling of waste to off-site deep well (Current Operation); Creation of interceptor trenches, collection and hauling of waste to off-site deep well (Current Operation); On-site collection and treatment with point source discharge to Little Traverse Bay; On-site collection and treatment with point source discharge to Little Traverse Bay; Adsorption Technology Adsorption Technology Ultrafiltration Technology Ultrafiltration Technology Ultrafiltration is seen as the most promising Best Available Technology (BAT). Ultrafiltration is seen as the most promising Best Available Technology (BAT). PREVIOUS/ON-GOING STUDIES 18

19 PREVIOUS STUDIES 19 U.S. EPA Aug Treatment Technologies for Hg in Soil, Waste and Water, U.S. EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, Washington D.C. Aug Treatment Technologies for Hg in Soil, Waste and Water, U.S. EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, Washington D.C. PARSONS GROUP Pilot scale study conducted over a 6-week period (Nov. to Dec.) Pilot scale study conducted over a 6-week period (Nov. to Dec.). Demonstrated that Pretreatment (pH adjustment ) + UF could reduce Hg from 700 ng/L to 200 ng/L. Demonstrated that Pretreatment (pH adjustment ) + UF could reduce Hg from 700 ng/L to 200 ng/L. Hg reduced further to ng/L when Coag./Precip. added. Hg reduced further to ng/L when Coag./Precip. added.

20 ON-GOING STUDIES 20 CAPTUR TECHNOLOGY On-going evaluation of proprietary system using coag./floc. and adsorption technology to remove Hg. On-going evaluation of proprietary system using coag./floc. and adsorption technology to remove Hg. Promising effluent Hg concentrations < 1.3 ng/L (WQS). Promising effluent Hg concentrations < 1.3 ng/L (WQS). If technology is effective & full-scale, If technology is effective & full-scale, Captur technology will likely be used at Bay Harbor.

21 21 Low pressure (5 psig to 150 psig) process. Uses semi-permeable tubular membrane. Removes high MW components/suspended solids from aqueous solutions. Low MW components pass through UF membranes. Membranes are physical barrier that permits passage of materials up to a certain size/shape/character. SUMMARY OF UF TECHNOLOGY

22 22 SUMMARY OF ECT PILOT STUDY Nov ECT begins UF pilot treatment study. Nov ECT begins UF pilot treatment study. Changes in volume/quality of Leachate since Parsons study. Changes in volume/quality of Leachate since Parsons study. New waste stream – TLC. New waste stream – TLC. Used technology & operating conditions determined as optimal by Parsons study: Used technology & operating conditions determined as optimal by Parsons study: pH-adjustment using 98% H 2 SO 4 pH-adjustment using 98% H 2 SO 4 Coag.-Floc. w/ Aluminum sulfate (alum) Coag.-Floc. w/ Aluminum sulfate (alum) Cationic polymer floc. aid (metal precipitant) Cationic polymer floc. aid (metal precipitant) UF UF Provided additional data for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Application. Provided additional data for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Application. Koch Membrane Systems (KMS) provided UF Pilot System & Operational/Technical assistance. Koch Membrane Systems (KMS) provided UF Pilot System & Operational/Technical assistance.

23 23 INFLUENT COLLECTION 4 Influent Streams 4 Influent Streams Edge Drain Edge Drain TLC TLC Seep 1 Seep 1 Seep 2W (Seep 2 + WCKD) Seep 2W (Seep 2 + WCKD)

24 Influent Daily Avg. Flow Rate (GPM) Percent (%) of Total Daily Flow Flow 1 (GPM) Flow 1 (GPH) Flow 1 (mL/MIN) Batch 2 (gal) pH (Standard Units; S.U.) Hg (ng/L) Seep % , Seep 2W (Seep 2 + WCKD) % , Edge Drain % , TLC % Total % , “COMBINED” INFLUENT Batches combined based on daily avg. flow of each stream. Batches combined based on daily avg. flow of each stream.

25 25 INFLUENT METERING/MIXING 55-GAL. 55-GAL. head tanks

26 26 pH-ADJUSTMENT ↓ From >12 to ↓ From >12 to % H 2 SO 4 98% H 2 SO GAL. tank 300-GAL. tank

27 27 COAGULATION/FLOCCULATION AlumAddition MPAddition

28 28 ULTRAFILTRATION

29 29 ULTRAFILTRATION (CONT’D) Feed/Supply Tank (280 GAL.) ProcessTank (50 GAL.)

30 30 STORAGE OF EFFLUENT/CONCENTRATE 2 x 1,500-GAL. polytanks 2 x 1,500-GAL. polytanks

31 31 PILOT TREATMENT – FLOOR PLAN

32 Photo Source: Koch Membrane Systems 32 SUMMARY OF UF TECHNOLOGY Koch Membrane Systems (KMS) provided UF Pilot System & Operational/Technical Assistance. Koch Membrane Systems (KMS) provided UF Pilot System & Operational/Technical Assistance.

33 33 SUMMARY OF UF TECHNOLOGY (CONT’D) Photo Source: Koch Membrane Systems

34 34

35 Water, salts, ↓MW constituents Water, salts, ↓MW constituents To Discharge To Discharge LEACHATE/ FEED WATER (INFLUENT) ` PERMEATE(EFFLUENT) 35 UF PERMEATE/CONCENTRATE Solutes ↑ than UF membrane pore size Solutes ↑ than UF membrane pore size Suspended solids Suspended solids Circled back to feed tank Circled back to feed tank Needs disposal Needs disposal UFCONCENTRATE Combined Influent Combined Influent

36 36 UF FLOW – SIMPLE BATCH PROCESS Figure Source: Koch Membrane Systems

37 37 UF FLOW – MODIFIED BATCH PROCESS Figure Source: Koch Membrane Systems

38 38 UF FLOW – ONE-STAGE CONTINUOUS PROCESS Figure Source: Koch Membrane Systems

39 39 SUMMARY OF PILOT RUNS Runs 1 -3: Used Combined Influent (based on daily avg. flow of each seep). Used Combined Influent (based on daily avg. flow of each seep). Purpose: Demonstrated effectiveness to MDEQ, EPA & Stakeholders. Purpose: Demonstrated effectiveness to MDEQ, EPA & Stakeholders.

40 40 SUMMARY OF PILOT RUNS (CONT’D) Runs : Determined optimum mix of seeps. Determined optimum mix of seeps. Collect WQ & System Operation Data to support full-scale commercial treatment system design. Collect WQ & System Operation Data to support full-scale commercial treatment system design. Used individual seeps, various combinations, various additives, various concentration factors, longer run-times, etc. Used individual seeps, various combinations, various additives, various concentration factors, longer run-times, etc.

41 41 SUMMARY OF PILOT RUNS (CONT’D)

42 Analysis included: Analysis included: COD COD TDS* TDS* TSS* TSS* TOC TOC Alkalinity Alkalinity Hardness Hardness Anions (incl. Chloride* & Sulfate*) Anions (incl. Chloride* & Sulfate*) Various individual stream component concentrations… Various individual stream component concentrations… Heavy metals: Cu*, Hg*, Pb, Ni, Mo*, Se* & V* Heavy metals: Cu*, Hg*, Pb, Ni, Mo*, Se* & V* Sulfate Sulfate salts salts Note: Asterisk (*) indicates “Constituent of Concern” Acute & Chronic Toxicity Data Acute & Chronic Toxicity Data 42 SUMMARY ANALYTICAL DATA

43 43 ANALYTICAL RESULTS 97% Hg Removed 97% Hg Removed (Influent 42 to 78 ng/L) (Effluent 1.8 to 8.1 ng/L) 97% TSS Removed 97% TSS Removed (Influent 13 to 107 mg/L) (Effluent <3.3 to 8.5 mg/L) 90% Cu Removed 90% Cu Removed (Influent 13 to 49 µg/L) (Effluent <5.0 to 14 µg/L)

44 44 ANALYTICAL RESULTS 32% Molybdenum Removed 32% Molybdenum Removed (Influent 76 to 100 µg/L) (Effluent 53 to 140 µg/L) (Influent 76 to 100 µg/L) (Effluent 53 to 140 µg/L) 30% Selenium Removed 30% Selenium Removed (Influent 16 to 23 µg/L) (Effluent 14 to 27 µg/L) (Influent 16 to 23 µg/L) (Effluent 14 to 27 µg/L) 28% TDS Removed 28% TDS Removed (Influent 4,700 to 7,200 mg/L) (Effluent 4,000 to 8,300 mg/L) (Influent 4,700 to 7,200 mg/L) (Effluent 4,000 to 8,300 mg/L) 24% Sulfate Removed 24% Sulfate Removed (Influent 1,700 to 2,900 mg/L) (Effluent 1,700 to 3,900 mg/L) 23% Chloride Removed 23% Chloride Removed (Influent 330 to 1,100 mg/L) (Effluent 310 to 1,200 mg/L) Use of both Alum & Metal Precipitant provided best metals removal Use of both Alum & Metal Precipitant provided best metals removal

45 45 RESULTS – MERCURY REMOVAL 97% Hg Removed 97% Hg Removed

46 46 RESULTS – TSS REMOVAL 97% TSS Removed 97% TSS Removed

47 47 RESULTS – COPPER REMOVAL 90% Copper Removed 90% Copper Removed

48 48 TCLP RESULTS TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC LEACHING PROCEDURE: Effluent Does NOT exceed regulatory limits for hazardous waste. Effluent Does NOT exceed regulatory limits for hazardous waste. ConstituentAbbreviation TCLP Metals Limit (mg/L) Run 1 UF Concentrate 10X TCLP Results (mg/L) Run 2 UF Concentrate 30X TCLP Results (mg/L) Run 3 UF Concentrate 20X TCLP Results (mg/L) ArsenicAs5.0<0.10 BariumBa100.0< <0.35 CadmiumCd1.0<0.010<0.020<0.010 ChromiumCr5.0<0.050 LeadPb5.0<0.050 MercuryHg SeleniumSe1.0<0.10 SilverAg5.0<0.010

49 49 FULL-SCALE TREATMENT SYSTEM

50 50 UF System Effective in Removing Hg: 97% Hg Removal 1.8 ng/L [Hg] achieved MDEQ Considers UF To Be Best-Available-Technology In This Case NPDES Permit Issued for Discharge to LTB With Hg Limits With WET Limits New Treatment Building currently under construction. CONCLUSION

51 Little Traverse Bay Environmental Project (LTBEP) (Bay Harbor Development, Petoskey, MI) QUESTIONS/COMMENTS? Prepared by: Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc. Prepared by: Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc. Peter F. Hill, P.E. Jeremy S. Lewandowski Mark D. Mikesell, Ph.D. William E. Stone Peter F. Hill, P.E. Jeremy S. Lewandowski Mark D. Mikesell, Ph.D. William E. Stone Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc Commonwealth Blvd., Ste. 300 Ann Arbor, MI Traverse City, MI Ph: (734) Ph: (231) Fax (734) Fax: (231) Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc Commonwealth Blvd., Ste. 300 Ann Arbor, MI Traverse City, MI Ph: (734) Ph: (231) Fax (734) Fax: (231)


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