Presentation on theme: "Marine pollution Definition"— Presentation transcript:
1 Marine pollution Definition "Introduction of man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of quality for use of sea-water, and reduction of amenities.” – GESAMP
2 Marine pollution General impacts Impacts on living resources Contd..Marine pollutionGeneral impactsImpacts on living resourcesHazards to human healthHindrance to marine activitiesImpairment of quality of seawaterReduction of amenitiesLoss of aesthetic beautyImpacts on the sensitive habitats
3 Sources of pollution Land-based sources Agricultural run-off Municipal and industrial wastesSea-based sourcesOceanic dumpingOffshore oil spills
4 Point and Non-Point Sources Contd..Point and Non-Point SourcesPoint source – refers to a single identifiable source of pollutants eg. effluent outfall Non-point source – refers to diffuse source of pollutants eg. Acid rain, dust stormsNONPOINT SOURCESPOINT SOURCESUrban streetsSuburban developmentWastewater treatment plantRural homesCroplandFactoryAnimal feedlot
5 Discrete vs. Chronic Pollution Types of pollutionDiscrete vs. Chronic PollutionDiscrete (short term) – eg. an oil spill, the effects of which diminish with timeChronic (long term) – eg. nutrient input, effluent discharge
7 Oil pollutionOil pollution is mostly used to describe marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters.Oil spills are due to the following:crude oil from tankersoffshore platformsdrilling rigs and wellsspills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel)spill of any oily refuse or waste oil
9 Oil pollutionContd..FateWhen oil is spilled on sea it spreads over the surface to form a thin film – called oil slickLight oil spreads faster than heavy wax oilLow molecular weight fractions evaporateWater soluble components dissolveNon-water soluble components emulsify and forms a viscous mass – “chocolate mousse”Heavy residues form tar balls
11 Oil pollution Impacts Effects – Impairment of marine life Contd..ImpactsEffects – Impairment of marine lifePlankton, esp. neuston at highest risk – exposed to water soluble components leaching from oilFixed vegetation –Sea grass beds– killed or flowering inhibitedIn Mangroves – lenticels clogged with oil oxygen level in sediments drops – deathSea birds –buoyancy and thermal insulation lost
12 Oil pollution Impacts Commercial damage Contd..ImpactsCommercial damageMortality of fish, reduction in catchDeath of fish eggs and larvaeTourism – becomes nuisance – avoided by beach goers – loss of revenueLoss of sensitive marine habitats – loss of flora and fauna
13 Eutrophication“The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially nitrogen and/or phosphorus, causing an accelerated growth of algae and higher forms of plant life to produce an undesirable disturbance to the balance of organisms present in the water and to the quality of water concerned”- OSPAR (Oslo/Paris convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic)
14 Eutrophication Sources Wastewater effluent (municipal and industrial) Contd..EutrophicationSourcesWastewater effluent (municipal and industrial)Runoff and leachate from waste disposal systemsRunoff from agriculture/irrigation Runoff from pasture and rangeRunoff from mines, oil fields, unsewered industrial sitesOverflows of combined storm and sanitary sewersUntreated sewage
15 Eutrophication Impacts Over-productivity Contd..EutrophicationImpactsOver-productivityReduction in phytoplankton species diversityGrowth of harmful algal bloomsReduction in dissolved oxygen contentAnoxia and mass mortalities of marine organisms
16 Contd..EutrophicationGlobal map of dead zones related to human-caused eutrophication (Scientific American, 2008)
17 An example of Marine outfalls in Tarut Bay EutrophicationContd..An example of Marine outfalls in Tarut BaySafwa STPSanabis STPAwamiya STP & Nasira AgriculturalJaruadiyah STPMajidia Agricultural DischargeAnak South Agriculture dischargeAnak North Agricultural Discharge
18 Total estimated discharges (m3/day) EutrophicationContd..Total estimated discharges (m3/day)
19 Water Quality Parameters EutrophicationContd..PME Receiving body Water Quality Standards ParameterUnit Red Sea Industrial(C3)Arabian GulfIndustrialWater Quality ParametersTKNmg/l5Inorganic Nitrogen(Nitrite & Nitrate)2Total Phosphorus1Dissolved oxygen>3>5BOD1520
20 Discharge Parameters (mean for 2006-2007) EutrophicationContd..Discharge Parameters (mean for )Discharge(30 day avg.)Flow Rate(m3/day)Ammonia (mg/L)BOD (mg/L)pH (units)TKN(mg/L)PMEAllowable Effluent Level1.0256-95Al Jesh STP15,16116.5261.96-20.19Anak-North42,4223.61Anak-South31,8823.65Awamiya STP17,18817.0264.1720.22Dammam STP230,12813.7222.587.4516.51Jaruadiyah STP65,73613.063.23Joyaima GP6.558.039.14Majidia8,510Nasira Plant10,2383.63Ras Tanura Refinery137,9087.74Safwa STP14,2652.654.177.08Sanabis STP23,98816.5463.5021.11In excess of PME standards for direct discharge to receiving waters for a 30 day average.
21 Conservative pollutants - Metals A heavy metal is a member of a loosely-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties.It mainly includes the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides.There is an alternative term for heavy metal and is called as toxic metalThe major sources of metals are:Natural sourcesManmade sources
25 Conservative pollutants - Metals Contd..Conservative pollutants - MetalsImpactsArsenic (As)Phytoplankton most sensitive & accumulate from water columnHigher trophic levels accumulate via food.Cadmium (Cd)Divalent cadmium is more toxicTends to bioaccumulateLead (Pb)Forms strong complex with clay and suspended materialBioaccumulates in most marine organisms – no significant problems.
26 Conservative pollutants - Metals Contd..Conservative pollutants - MetalsAn example of Mercury pollution in Minamata Bay, Japan ( )SourcePollution from plastic plant- dumped mercuric chloride into the bayImpactShellfishes contaminated with mercuryPeople who consumed shellfish severely affected43 dead and 700 permanently disabledBay is still unusable for fishing and shell fishing
27 Impacts of metal pollution by Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
28 BioaccumulationIncrease in concentration of a substance(s) in an organism or a part of that organismThe affected organism has a higher concentration of the substance than the concentration in the organism’s surrounding environmentNot excreted or metabolised and failure of the target organ
30 Biomagnification Also called bioamplification Increase in concentration of a substance in a food chain, not an organism
31 Conservative pollutants – Halogenated hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons containing chlorine, fluorine, bromine or iodineDiffers from petroleum hydrocarbons – not degraded by chemical oxidation or by bacteriaLow molecular weight compounds– eg., Dichloroethane, Freons etc.High molecular weight compounds– eg., DDT, Drins, PCBs
32 Conservative pollutants – Halogenated hydrocarbons Contd..Conservative pollutants –Halogenated hydrocarbonsSourcesAerial transportAerial spraying of pesticides as aerosols – travel great distancesFreshwater inputsRain washing of pesticides carried into sea by riversSilt from floodDirect inputsBy industrial outfalls – especially by Pesticide manufacturing companies.
33 Conservative pollutants – Halogenated hydrocarbons Contd..Conservative pollutants –Halogenated hydrocarbonsImpactsLow solubility in water persist for long durationsFat-soluble , so incorporated into the tissue of marine organisms and sedimentsLethal to the animalPossibility of transmission through food webs – established in a number of animals
34 Outfall from Qurrayah power plant, Saudi Arabia Thermal pollutionThermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature.A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the change in temperature decreases oxygen supply, and affects ecosystem composition.Outfall from Qurrayah power plant, Saudi Arabia
36 Thermal pollution Impacts Thermal shock Decrease in dissolved oxygen Contd..Thermal pollutionImpactsThermal shockDecrease in dissolved oxygenIncrease in photosynthesisIncrease in metabolic rate of fishIncrease in oxygen consumption
37 Radioactive pollution Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of research and medicine.Radioactive waste is hazardous to human healthPollution due to radioactive wastes – Radioactive pollution
38 Radioactive pollution Contd..Radioactive pollutionSourcesWeapons testing – Testing of nuclear weapons – when exploded underwater release fission products and isotopesLiquid wastes – Discharge from the cooling water of nuclear reactorsSolid wastes – Dumping of radioactive wastes in Sea (now no longer practiced).
39 Radioactive pollution Contd..Radioactive pollutionImpactsHighly lethal - Even low doses causes fatal damagePossibility of bioaccumulation – especially in algae and bivalveseg. Porphyra near a nuclear power plant location had 10 times more caesium-137 than in the surrounding waters
40 Litter and Plastics pollution Marine litter, is human created waste that has deliberately or accidentally become afloat in a the sea or ocean.It tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and on coastlines, frequently washing aground, when it is known as beach litter or tidewrack.
41 Litter and Plastics pollution Contd..Litter and Plastics pollutionSourcesUp to 80% of the pollution is land-based.A wide variety of anthropogenic artifacts can become marine debrisPlastic Bags, Balloons, Buoys etc.
42 Litter and Plastics pollution Contd..Litter and Plastics pollutionImpactsMany animals that live on or in the sea consume flotsam by mistake, as it often looks similar to their natural preyBlocks the passage of food and causing death through starvation or infection.Tiny floating particles also resemble zooplankton, which can lead filter feeders to consume them and cause them to enter the ocean food chain.In samples taken from the North Pacific Gyre in 1999 by the Algalita Marine Research Foundation, the mass of plastic exceeded that of zooplankton by a factor of six.
43 Solution to pollution Reduce input of toxic pollutants Treat sewage primary, secondary and tertiary treatmentBan dumping of wastes and raw sewage in nthe seaBan ocean dumping of sludge and hazardous dredged materialProtect sensitive areas from development, oil drilling, and oil shippingRegulate coastal development