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Marine pollution Definition

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Presentation on theme: "Marine pollution Definition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine pollution Definition
"Introduction of man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of quality for use of sea-water, and reduction of amenities.” – GESAMP

2 Marine pollution General impacts Impacts on living resources
Contd.. Marine pollution General impacts Impacts on living resources Hazards to human health Hindrance to marine activities Impairment of quality of seawater Reduction of amenities Loss of aesthetic beauty Impacts on the sensitive habitats

3 Sources of pollution Land-based sources Agricultural run-off
Municipal and industrial wastes Sea-based sources Oceanic dumping Offshore oil spills

4 Point and Non-Point Sources
Contd.. Point and Non-Point Sources Point source – refers to a single identifiable source of pollutants eg. effluent outfall Non-point source – refers to diffuse source of pollutants eg. Acid rain, dust storms NONPOINT SOURCES POINT SOURCES Urban streets Suburban development Wastewater treatment plant Rural homes Cropland Factory Animal feedlot

5 Discrete vs. Chronic Pollution
Types of pollution Discrete vs. Chronic Pollution Discrete (short term) – eg. an oil spill, the effects of which diminish with time Chronic (long term) – eg. nutrient input, effluent discharge

6 (Petroleum hydrocarbons) Litter & Plastic debris
Types of pollution Contd.. Pollution Oil (Petroleum hydrocarbons) Eutrophication Conservative Metals Halogenated hydrocarbons Thermal Radioactive Litter & Plastic debris

7 Oil pollution Oil pollution is mostly used to describe marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills are due to the following: crude oil from tankers offshore platforms drilling rigs and wells spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) spill of any oily refuse or waste oil

8 Oil pollution Contd.. Sources Source: UNEP

9 Oil pollution Contd.. Fate When oil is spilled on sea it spreads over the surface to form a thin film – called oil slick Light oil spreads faster than heavy wax oil Low molecular weight fractions evaporate Water soluble components dissolve Non-water soluble components emulsify and forms a viscous mass – “chocolate mousse” Heavy residues form tar balls

10 Oil pollution Contd.. Fate Tar balls Chocolate mousse

11 Oil pollution Impacts Effects – Impairment of marine life
Contd.. Impacts Effects – Impairment of marine life Plankton, esp. neuston at highest risk – exposed to water soluble components leaching from oil Fixed vegetation –Sea grass beds– killed or flowering inhibited In Mangroves – lenticels clogged with oil oxygen level in sediments drops – death Sea birds –buoyancy and thermal insulation lost

12 Oil pollution Impacts Commercial damage
Contd.. Impacts Commercial damage Mortality of fish, reduction in catch Death of fish eggs and larvae Tourism – becomes nuisance – avoided by beach goers – loss of revenue Loss of sensitive marine habitats – loss of flora and fauna

13 Eutrophication “The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially nitrogen and/or phosphorus, causing an accelerated growth of algae and higher forms of plant life to produce an undesirable disturbance to the balance of organisms present in the water and to the quality of water concerned” - OSPAR (Oslo/Paris convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic)

14 Eutrophication Sources Wastewater effluent (municipal and industrial)
Contd.. Eutrophication Sources Wastewater effluent (municipal and industrial) Runoff and leachate from waste disposal systems Runoff from agriculture/irrigation Runoff from pasture and range Runoff from mines, oil fields, unsewered industrial sites Overflows of combined storm and sanitary sewers Untreated sewage

15 Eutrophication Impacts Over-productivity
Contd.. Eutrophication Impacts Over-productivity Reduction in phytoplankton species diversity Growth of harmful algal blooms Reduction in dissolved oxygen content Anoxia and mass mortalities of marine organisms

16 Contd.. Eutrophication Global map of dead zones related to human-caused eutrophication (Scientific American, 2008)

17 An example of Marine outfalls in Tarut Bay
Eutrophication Contd.. An example of Marine outfalls in Tarut Bay Safwa STP Sanabis STP Awamiya STP & Nasira Agricultural Jaruadiyah STP Majidia Agricultural Discharge Anak South Agriculture discharge Anak North Agricultural Discharge

18 Total estimated discharges (m3/day)
Eutrophication Contd.. Total estimated discharges (m3/day)

19 Water Quality Parameters
Eutrophication Contd.. PME Receiving body Water Quality Standards  Parameter Unit  Red Sea   Industrial (C3) Arabian Gulf Industrial Water Quality Parameters TKN mg/l 5 Inorganic Nitrogen (Nitrite & Nitrate) 2 Total Phosphorus 1 Dissolved oxygen >3 >5 BOD 15 20

20 Discharge Parameters (mean for 2006-2007)
Eutrophication Contd.. Discharge Parameters (mean for ) Discharge (30 day avg.) Flow Rate (m3/day) Ammonia (mg/L) BOD (mg/L) pH (units) TKN (mg/L) PME Allowable Effluent Level 1.0 25 6-9 5 Al Jesh STP 15,161 16.52 61.96 - 20.19 Anak-North 42,422 3.61 Anak-South 31,882 3.65 Awamiya STP 17,188 17.02 64.17 20.22 Dammam STP 230,128 13.72 22.58 7.45 16.51 Jaruadiyah STP 65,736 13.06 3.23 Joyaima GP 6.55 8.03 9.14 Majidia 8,510 Nasira Plant 10,238 3.63 Ras Tanura Refinery 137,908 7.74 Safwa STP 14,265 2.65 4.17 7.08 Sanabis STP 23,988 16.54 63.50 21.11 In excess of PME standards for direct discharge to receiving waters for a 30 day average.

21 Conservative pollutants - Metals
A heavy metal is a member of a loosely-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties. It mainly includes the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides. There is an alternative term for heavy metal and is called as toxic metal The major sources of metals are: Natural sources Manmade sources

22 Conservative pollutants - Metals
Contd.. Conservative pollutants - Metals Natural Sources Erosion of ore-bearing rocks Atmospheric inputs - wind blown dust Volcanic activity Forest fires Riverine inputs into oceans

23 Conservative pollutants - Metals
Contd.. Conservative pollutants - Metals Manmade Sources Industrial discharge Sewage Re-suspension of sediments by dredging and trenching

24 Conservative pollutants - Metals
Contd.. Conservative pollutants - Metals World-wide emissions (Clark, 2001) Metal Natural sources (in thousand tonnes/year) Anthropogenic sources Arsenic 12 18 Cadmium 1.3 7.6 Copper 28 35 Lead 332 Nickel 30 56 Zinc 45 132

25 Conservative pollutants - Metals
Contd.. Conservative pollutants - Metals Impacts Arsenic (As) Phytoplankton most sensitive & accumulate from water column Higher trophic levels accumulate via food. Cadmium (Cd) Divalent cadmium is more toxic Tends to bioaccumulate Lead (Pb) Forms strong complex with clay and suspended material Bioaccumulates in most marine organisms – no significant problems.

26 Conservative pollutants - Metals
Contd.. Conservative pollutants - Metals An example of Mercury pollution in Minamata Bay, Japan ( ) Source Pollution from plastic plant- dumped mercuric chloride into the bay Impact Shellfishes contaminated with mercury People who consumed shellfish severely affected 43 dead and 700 permanently disabled Bay is still unusable for fishing and shell fishing

27 Impacts of metal pollution by Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification

28 Bioaccumulation Increase in concentration of a substance(s) in an organism or a part of that organism The affected organism has a higher concentration of the substance than the concentration in the organism’s surrounding environment Not excreted or metabolised and failure of the target organ

29 An example of bioaccumulation in Arabic Gulf

30 Biomagnification Also called bioamplification
Increase in concentration of a substance in a food chain, not an organism

31 Conservative pollutants – Halogenated hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons containing chlorine, fluorine, bromine or iodine Differs from petroleum hydrocarbons – not degraded by chemical oxidation or by bacteria Low molecular weight compounds – eg., Dichloroethane, Freons etc. High molecular weight compounds – eg., DDT, Drins, PCBs

32 Conservative pollutants – Halogenated hydrocarbons
Contd.. Conservative pollutants – Halogenated hydrocarbons Sources Aerial transport Aerial spraying of pesticides as aerosols – travel great distances Freshwater inputs Rain washing of pesticides carried into sea by rivers Silt from flood Direct inputs By industrial outfalls – especially by Pesticide manufacturing companies.

33 Conservative pollutants – Halogenated hydrocarbons
Contd.. Conservative pollutants – Halogenated hydrocarbons Impacts Low solubility in water persist for long durations Fat-soluble , so incorporated into the tissue of marine organisms and sediments Lethal to the animal Possibility of transmission through food webs – established in a number of animals

34 Outfall from Qurrayah power plant, Saudi Arabia
Thermal pollution Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the change in temperature decreases oxygen supply, and affects ecosystem composition. Outfall from Qurrayah power plant, Saudi Arabia

35 Thermal pollution Sources Industrial wastewater Power plant discharges
Contd.. Thermal pollution Sources Industrial wastewater Power plant discharges Desalination plant discharges Urban runoff

36 Thermal pollution Impacts Thermal shock Decrease in dissolved oxygen
Contd.. Thermal pollution Impacts Thermal shock Decrease in dissolved oxygen Increase in photosynthesis Increase in metabolic rate of fish Increase in oxygen consumption

37 Radioactive pollution
Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to human health Pollution due to radioactive wastes – Radioactive pollution

38 Radioactive pollution
Contd.. Radioactive pollution Sources Weapons testing – Testing of nuclear weapons – when exploded underwater release fission products and isotopes Liquid wastes – Discharge from the cooling water of nuclear reactors Solid wastes – Dumping of radioactive wastes in Sea (now no longer practiced).

39 Radioactive pollution
Contd.. Radioactive pollution Impacts Highly lethal - Even low doses causes fatal damage Possibility of bioaccumulation – especially in algae and bivalves eg. Porphyra near a nuclear power plant location had 10 times more caesium-137 than in the surrounding waters

40 Litter and Plastics pollution
Marine litter, is human created waste that has deliberately or accidentally become afloat in a the sea or ocean. It tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and on coastlines, frequently washing aground, when it is known as beach litter or tidewrack.

41 Litter and Plastics pollution
Contd.. Litter and Plastics pollution Sources Up to 80% of the pollution is land-based. A wide variety of anthropogenic artifacts can become marine debris Plastic Bags, Balloons, Buoys etc.

42 Litter and Plastics pollution
Contd.. Litter and Plastics pollution Impacts Many animals that live on or in the sea consume flotsam by mistake, as it often looks similar to their natural prey Blocks the passage of food and causing death through starvation or infection. Tiny floating particles also resemble zooplankton, which can lead filter feeders to consume them and cause them to enter the ocean food chain. In samples taken from the North Pacific Gyre in 1999 by the Algalita Marine Research Foundation, the mass of plastic exceeded that of zooplankton by a factor of six.

43 Solution to pollution Reduce input of toxic pollutants
Treat sewage primary, secondary and tertiary treatment Ban dumping of wastes and raw sewage in nthe sea Ban ocean dumping of sludge and hazardous dredged material Protect sensitive areas from development, oil drilling, and oil shipping Regulate coastal development

44 Thank you

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