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Techniques in post treatment of ABR effluents in treating municipal wastewater A literature review of appropriate technologies for Nepal Sanita Dhaubanjar’13.

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Presentation on theme: "Techniques in post treatment of ABR effluents in treating municipal wastewater A literature review of appropriate technologies for Nepal Sanita Dhaubanjar’13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Techniques in post treatment of ABR effluents in treating municipal wastewater A literature review of appropriate technologies for Nepal Sanita Dhaubanjar’13 Smith-Princeton Exchange Student 2011

2 PEI Health Grand Challenge Project Title : Study on the water systems and delivery of water in Kathmandu Nepal Project Title : Study on the water systems and delivery of water in Kathmandu Nepal Organization: Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Kathmandu, Nepal Organization: Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Kathmandu, Nepal Project Summary: The project would involve work with the epidemiology team of OUCRU-NP and the Engineering Department of Kathmandu City to GIS map all the water spouts, investigate the water delivery systems, and link this with the on-going molecular epidemiology of enteric fever in the city. Project Summary: The project would involve work with the epidemiology team of OUCRU-NP and the Engineering Department of Kathmandu City to GIS map all the water spouts, investigate the water delivery systems, and link this with the on-going molecular epidemiology of enteric fever in the city.

3 Developing a New Project Project: Research on Wastewater treatment technologies Project: Research on Wastewater treatment technologies Organisation: Bio-Based and Green Energy Lab (BGEL) at Kathmandu University (KU) Organisation: Bio-Based and Green Energy Lab (BGEL) at Kathmandu University (KU) Project Advisors: Project Advisors: Dr Bivek Baral, Coordinator, BGEL Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU Dr Bivek Baral, Coordinator, BGEL Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU Sunil Lohani Sunil Lohani Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU

4 Proposed Goals of Study Literature review of Anaerobic Baffle Reactor (ABR) technology to Identify suitable pre and post treatment technology to supplement ABR as they effluent quality from ABR does not acceptable standards. Focus on less land intensive technologies. Literature review of Anaerobic Baffle Reactor (ABR) technology to Identify suitable pre and post treatment technology to supplement ABR as they effluent quality from ABR does not acceptable standards. Focus on less land intensive technologies. Review different wastewater efmeet fluent standards around the world, especially in south-Asian countries like Nepal and suggest acceptable and reasonable effluent standards for Nepal. Review different wastewater efmeet fluent standards around the world, especially in south-Asian countries like Nepal and suggest acceptable and reasonable effluent standards for Nepal.

5 Current status of wastewater treatment in Kathmandu, Nepal

6 Dhobighat Wastewater Treatment Plant Kodku Wastewater Treatment Plant

7 Status of wastewater treatment The 5 centralized WWTP that are not working. All plants were based primarily on aerobic degradation. The 5 centralized WWTP that are not working. All plants were based primarily on aerobic degradation. About 12 communities tried to implement decentralized Reed Bed Treatment. ENPHO and handful of private groups invested in constructed wetland based treatment. About 12 communities tried to implement decentralized Reed Bed Treatment. ENPHO and handful of private groups invested in constructed wetland based treatment. Roughly 370 MLD of wastewater produced in the country of which the installed WWTP account for only 37 MLD (10% of total demand) Roughly 370 MLD of wastewater produced in the country of which the installed WWTP account for only 37 MLD (10% of total demand)

8 Identified Problems in Nepal Technical inefficiencies Technical inefficiencies Blocked sewers due to inadequate flushing and self cleaning Blocked sewers due to inadequate flushing and self cleaning Lack of filtration or sedimentation as pre-treatment Lack of filtration or sedimentation as pre-treatment Lack of institutional capacity to run WWTP Lack of institutional capacity to run WWTP Failure to design for combined sewer overflows (CSOs) Failure to design for combined sewer overflows (CSOs) Traditionally preferred system of waste stabilization ponds not favored because of increased land cost, and advanced systems are not being constructed because of high capital and operational costs plus lack of technical expertise. Traditionally preferred system of waste stabilization ponds not favored because of increased land cost, and advanced systems are not being constructed because of high capital and operational costs plus lack of technical expertise. Administrative inefficiencies Administrative inefficiencies Overlapping responsibility between various government sectors in maintenance of sewer systems. Overlapping responsibility between various government sectors in maintenance of sewer systems. Lack of strict monitoring of wastewater discharge. Lack of strict monitoring of wastewater discharge.

9 Anaerobic Baffle Reactor: Overview Schematic cross-section of an up-flow ABR. Source: Morel & Diener (2006)

10 Highlights from review Optimal reactor conditions and supplements available in literature to enhance performance Optimal reactor conditions and supplements available in literature to enhance performance Suitable technologies found in literature Suitable technologies found in literature Coagulation-Floccultaion using Zeolite/polymer columns Coagulation-Floccultaion using Zeolite/polymer columns Membrane Separation Technologies, espcecially Ultrafiltration Membrane Separation Technologies, espcecially Ultrafiltration Aerobic CSTRs Aerobic CSTRs Submergerd aerated bio-filter Submergerd aerated bio-filter Dissolved air flotation Dissolved air flotation Trickling filter Trickling filter Anaerobic filters Anaerobic filters Wetlands and aerated lagoons Wetlands and aerated lagoons Soil Aquifier treatment (SAT) Soil Aquifier treatment (SAT) Anaerobic filters Anaerobic filters Down flowhanging sludge filters Down flowhanging sludge filters Activated Sludge processes Activated Sludge processes UV/H2O2 UV/H2O2 Periodic Anaerobic Baffle Reactor for time varying loadings Periodic Anaerobic Baffle Reactor for time varying loadings

11 Other Suggestions Wastewater characterization Wastewater characterization Identify and raise awareness about potential reuse of treated wastewater Identify and raise awareness about potential reuse of treated wastewater Cost analysis of various combination of wastewater treatment Cost analysis of various combination of wastewater treatment Surveys to understand the interests and knowledge of communities in managing their own wastes Surveys to understand the interests and knowledge of communities in managing their own wastes

12 My Learning experience Valuable insight on starting and conducting researches and literature review Valuable insight on starting and conducting researches and literature review Increased efficiency in conducting searches using Journal Search Engines Increased efficiency in conducting searches using Journal Search Engines Knowledge about wastewater treatment technologies and their appropriateness Knowledge about wastewater treatment technologies and their appropriateness Status of wastewater treatment in Nepal Status of wastewater treatment in Nepal Understand the importance of networking Understand the importance of networking

13 Acknowledgements Dr. Baral and Prof. Lohani at Kathmandu University Dr. Baral and Prof. Lohani at Kathmandu University Dr Jeremy Farrar and Nepal’s team at OUCRU Dr Jeremy Farrar and Nepal’s team at OUCRU PEI Health Grand Challenges PEI Health Grand Challenges


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