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Household Wastewater Systems. Typical Waste Water System Well Renovated Wastewater.

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Presentation on theme: "Household Wastewater Systems. Typical Waste Water System Well Renovated Wastewater."— Presentation transcript:

1 Household Wastewater Systems

2 Typical Waste Water System Well Renovated Wastewater

3 Minimum Lot Size for Wastewater Disposal Systems Disposal System Type Water Supply Source Private Well Public Supply Aerobic w/ sprinklers ¾ acre ½ acre ET/Absorption Trench 1 acre Subsurface (fast perc.) ¾ acre ½ acre Subsurface (slow perc.) 1 acre Lagoon 2 ½ acres

4 Wastewater System Components Water-tight sewer linesWater-tight sewer lines Septic tankSeptic tank Disposal systemDisposal system –Subsurface drain field Absorption trenchesAbsorption trenches Infiltration chambersInfiltration chambers –ET/Absorption trenches –Aerobic system with sprinkler –Total retention lagoons –Pre-approved alternative disposal systems

5 Household Plumbing Sewer and Vent System Sewer lines in the house collect waste water for conveyance to the septic tankSewer lines in the house collect waste water for conveyance to the septic tank Roof vents and the traps under sinks, tubs, showers, toilets and wall/floor drains prevent sewer gas from entering the house.Roof vents and the traps under sinks, tubs, showers, toilets and wall/floor drains prevent sewer gas from entering the house. Screen vent pipe opening to prevent blockage by birds, squirrels, etc. Main Sewer Pipe

6 Septic Tank All household wastewater systems will have a septic tankAll household wastewater systems will have a septic tank Microbial action digests solid wastesMicrobial action digests solid wastes Liquids flow through tank to disposal areaLiquids flow through tank to disposal area Tank sizeTank size –1000 gallon liquid capacity (4-BR house or less) –Add 250 gallons per additional bedroom

7 House Foundation Typical Septic Tank Installation Two-Chamber Tank Baffles

8 Effluent Disposal Area Options Absorption fieldAbsorption field –Absorption trenches –Infiltration chambers –ET/Absorption trenches LagoonsLagoons Aerobic systemsAerobic systems Authorized alternative systemsAuthorized alternative systems

9 Subsurface Absorption Field Approval Percolation TestPercolation Test –3 test holes in drainage area perc at a rate of 60 min/inch of water or faster Soil Profile DescriptionSoil Profile Description –3 test holes without any of the following: (1) impervious material (bedrock, clay pan) (1) impervious material (bedrock, clay pan) (2) water saturated soil (discoloration) (2) water saturated soil (discoloration) (3) loamy coarse sand or coarser soil, or (3) loamy coarse sand or coarser soil, or (4) sandy clay or finer soil (4) sandy clay or finer soil

10 Cross-Section of Subsurface Absorption Trench Perforated Pipe 8-ft minimum distance to center of next trench

11 150’ MAX.

12 Lateral lines following the slope contour 150’ max. length

13 Aerobic Systems Used to treat septic tank effluent where subsurface disposal is not possibleUsed to treat septic tank effluent where subsurface disposal is not possible Bubbling air through effluent supports aerobic bacteria for further digestionBubbling air through effluent supports aerobic bacteria for further digestion Exposure to oxygen kills most pathogensExposure to oxygen kills most pathogens Chlorination allows surface land application of wastewater through sprinklersChlorination allows surface land application of wastewater through sprinklers

14 (Septic Tank) Onsite Aerobic Treatment System Onsite aerobic treatment systems treat septic tank effluent further by aerobic digestion, chlorination to kill pathogens, and surface application through a spray head sprinkler system.

15 Typical Aeration Chamber of Aerobic Treatment System DIFFUSER EFFLUENT FROM SEPTIC TANK WASTEWATER TO CHLORINATOR & SPRINKLERS

16 Pump Chamber and Surface Application System Pump Pump Control & Alarm Floats Access Hatch Spray Heads

17 Regular green stripes in a dry lawn are the lateral lines

18 Household Water Use Typical Usage: gallons/person-dayTypical Usage: gallons/person-day –Clothes washer: gallons/load –Dishwasher: 7-15 gallons/load –Garbage Disposal: gallons/day –Shower/Bathtub: gallons/use –Ordinary toilet: gallons/flush –Water softener: gallons/regeneration

19 Septic System Additives Biological BacteriaBacteria YeastYeast EnzymesEnzymes CombinationCombinationChemical AcidsAcids BasesBases Organic SolventsOrganic Solvents FlocculantsFlocculants

20 Biological Additives Will not eliminate need for tank pumpingWill not eliminate need for tank pumping 20% of sludge is inorganic (indigestible)20% of sludge is inorganic (indigestible) Billions of bacteria live in septic tanks-- a few million more have little effectBillions of bacteria live in septic tanks-- a few million more have little effect If natural bacteria have been killed, added bacteria will die alsoIf natural bacteria have been killed, added bacteria will die also Normal population is restored in hours even if 99.99% has been killedNormal population is restored in hours even if 99.99% has been killed

21 Waste Water System Failures Common Causes Hydraulic overloading (too much water)Hydraulic overloading (too much water) Solids migration to drain fieldSolids migration to drain field –Failure to pump tank on schedule –Baffle failure Root intrusion into sewer linesRoot intrusion into sewer lines Traffic damage to drain fieldTraffic damage to drain field Garbage disposal overuseGarbage disposal overuse

22 Reducing Hydraulic Loading Equipment AdjustmentsEquipment Adjustments –Low flow toilets (1.6 gpf and 0.6 gpf) –Water-saving showerheads –Front-loading washing machines Lifestyle AdjustmentsLifestyle Adjustments –Shower vs. bath –Distribute laundry loads throughout week –Distribute bathing morning & evening –Full loads only for washer & dishwasher

23 If you don’t maintain your on-site wastewater system, it will demand your attention when it is most inconvenient.


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