Presentation on theme: "No Agriculture without Water Water for secure and viable photo Arthus-Bertrand."— Presentation transcript:
No Agriculture without Water Water for secure and viable photo Arthus-Bertrand
Why water is vital for food security l/day and capitaEssentialAbundantQuality Drinking24*** Domestic40400** Food (Evapotranspiration) * Water needs per person in litres per day
–About 50% of accessible water resources are currently mobilized for human use –Agriculture represents 69% of all water use (85 to 95% in developing countries) but are the largest consumer –Irrigation represents less than 20% of cultivated land but contributes 40% to overall food production Water use and food production Water withdrawal Agriculture 69 % Industry 21 % Municipal 10 % Municipal 3 % Agriculture 93 % Water consumption Industry 4 %
Freshwater withdrawal for Agriculture % Agricultural withdrawal No data –20 20–40 >40 Map showing agricultural water withdrawal as percentage of renewable water resource in 1998 by country, where withdrawals for agriculture are critically high (category 5) and indicative of water stress (category 4).
No data < –5 5–20 20–35 >35 % undernourished 800 millions undernourished people Percentage of undernourished people by country ( ). Prevalence of undernourishment is measured by the share of a country's total population that is undernourished
Sources of growth in crop production To meet the food demand between today and 2030 an increase in production of about 50 % is needed. FAO estimates that for 93 developing countries this increase will come from:
Irrigation efficiency and withdrawal: in 1998 and Irrigation efficiency (%) Irrigation water withdrawals as a percentage of renewable water resources sub-Saharan Africa Latin America Near East/ North Africa South Asia East Asia 93 developing countries FAO estimates (for 93 developing countries) that in 2030: - Irrigation efficiency is expected to improve from 38 to 42 % - water withdrawal is expected to grow by about 14 percent
New approaches in agricultural water management No Agriculture without Water
Improving rainfed production Soil and water conservation techniques –Reduce run-off and increased water infiltration contour stripping, terracing, micro-basins –Increased soil moisture storage Increased soil and rooting depth improve soil structure Crop selection Storage for supplemental irrigation –Tanks or ponds, groundwater
Improving water production Shift in cropping pattern (from rice to wheat) Increasing irrigation efficiency (60% water losses in irrigation) - Water saving technologies and management Use of non-conventional water sources: -treated waste water -de-salinizated water Drainage
Empowering people: Allocation of land and water resources to users (men and women) Power and responsibilities to the users (water use associations) Improving management -at scheme level Irrigation modernization, moving from: Protective to productive irrigation A supply-oriented to service-demand approach A centralised to a decentralised irrigation management
Improving management at farm level Improving productivity at farm level implies the following actions improving water use efficiency diversify crops This is done through: training and information investment in water saving technologies improved market opportunities and credit.
Reform of national water and land policies Ensuring fair and equitable access Secure water rights Water management at the river basin (upstream- downstream) Provide incentives to conserve water to reduce losses Recognising the full value while protecting the poor Regulations for protection of aquifers, rivers, lakes and wetlands (quality and quantity) International agreements on trans-boundary water resources Investments Improving management and policies -at national and international level
Include technical and institutional costs. Operation and maintenance cost are estimated to be 10 % of the investment costs Investment costs per ha Investments and financing sustainability
No Agriculture without Water Pro-poor and affordable agriculture water management
Role of water in poverty alleviation Raise food supply and cash income Reduced migration from rural areas to cities Irrigation allows for timely, secure increase in production without increasing the land holding Conditions –Affordable technologies –Local manufacturing capacity –Land, water and technology should be under farmer control –low operation and maintenance costs –Easy to install and to operate Pro-poor policies, actions and technoloies needed.
Case 1: Conservation Agriculture Traditional approaches in South America Requires animal use and high management skills Alternative forms of tillage prevents crust formation and maintains an organic soil cover Reduced erosion and water losses
Collecting of water in structures ranging from small furrows to dams Allows farmers to conserve rainwater and direct it to crop for increased food security in drought prone areas Case 2: Water harvesting Traditional approaches in arid and semi-arid countries High productivity Less risks Vulnerable to dry periods Requires water use groups Example: Keita valley in Niger tree plantation with trenches
Case 3: Low-cost well drilling Hand drilling technique from Asia helps farmers to improve their access to water Simple and manual Low cost Limited drilling depth
Case 4: Water lifting Simple pumping technologies combined with improved surface water distribution techniques helps farmers to manage the water better and reduce losses Simple Low costs No risk for groundwater overexploitation Requires time and cultural acceptance Example: Treadle pumps From Asia to Africa
Case 5: Family-kit drip irrigation Complete drip irrigation system for m2 household food security, income from high value crops and major reduces in water losses
No Agriculture without Water Managing the environmental and health impacts of irrigated agriculture
Impacts of irrigation Salinization Overuse and misuse of water in irrigated agriculture deprive downstream users (inc. environment) Poor management of irrigation and lack of sufficient drainage waterlogging and salinity problems Drawbacks of drainage risk for flooding downstream and reduced groundwater recharge Overuse of groundwater falling groundwater levels Waterlogging Health hazards
On health and environment Water conservation Reuse of drainage water Treatment of drainage water Safe disposal of drainage water Reducing favorable conditions for vector-born and water- related diseases by: Mitigating of adverse effects –improved management of irrigation systems (decrease breeding sites) –regular maintenance of irrigation systems.
Prevention of water-borne and water-washed diseases can be done through: –Education, training, media campaigns –Improved drinking water supplies, sanitation and housing –Strict control over the wastewater effluent quality being discharged Problem: In many countries, treatment facilities are inadequate or lacking altogether. Prevention
Conclusions Water is an essential element to secure food production, but it is not the only one; Development of land and water resources will need to be much more strategic; Agriculture has to improve water productivity We have to empower the water users Agriculture has to shoulder its environmental responsibilities Investments are needed