Centre pivot irrigation is a method of crop irrigation in which equipment rotates around a pivot. These systems can only be used where terrain is flat. They are large, hard to move and expensive to buy. A lot of water will evaporate before it reaches the ground or will be blown away. Stock cannot be in the field when it is working Cover a large area in a short amount of time.
These are small pods that can be moved easily by quad bikes. They are closer to the ground and so water is not lost by evaporation so easily. Stock can still graze the pasture when they are in use. Low capital cost. Suits ALL types of terrain. Best possible use of available water supplies.
Untreated effluent can carry disease e.g E.coli. This can be harmful to farm animals and humans. Effluent can enter the ground water and waterways. Water is discoloured directly, or via the growth of algae.
Runoff can cause eutrophication. This is an increase in the growth of bacteria and algae that take up dissolved oxygen in the water preventing fish and plant respiration. Fish gills can also clog up. Effluent gives off an unpleasant smell to surrounding areas. Paddocks cannot be used by animals for up to 2 weeks.
Nutrients in the effluent can be recycled back into the soil, reducing the amount of inorganic fertiliser that needs to be used. This reduces build up of toxic salts in the soil.