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Water Management Approaches DHAN Foundation’s Grass Root Experiences A. GURUNATHAN PROGRAMME LEADER.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Management Approaches DHAN Foundation’s Grass Root Experiences A. GURUNATHAN PROGRAMME LEADER."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Management Approaches DHAN Foundation’s Grass Root Experiences A. GURUNATHAN PROGRAMME LEADER

2 DHAN Foundaion - An Overview A Registered Pro - Poor Development Organisation A Registered Pro - Poor Development Organisation Founded on October 2, 1997 Founded on October 2, 1997 Operational in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry Operational in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry Reach (As on March 2010) Reach (As on March 2010) About 8Lakh Poor Families in 30000Villages / 51 Districts/ 13 States. About 8Lakh Poor Families in 30000Villages / 51 Districts/ 13 States.

3 Mothering of Development Innovations Mothering of Development Innovations – Promote and Nurture new ideas on different development themes. – Building around concerned individuals as anchors Promoting institutions to reach scale Promoting institutions to reach scale – Exclusive thematic organisations as subsidiaries Human Resource Development Human Resource Development – Building socially concerned professionals for the development sector. PURPOSE

4  Placing high quality people to work with the community  Direct action besides research, advocacy, reorienting others, etc.  “Enabling” rather than “delivery”  Development through empowered people based economic institutions DHAN’S APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT

5  Drawing on mainstream public resources besides “donations”  Collaborating with other institutions than operating alone  Learning and adapting rather than following set models  Focusing on livelihood development and poverty alleviation DHAN’S APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT

6 Approach Poverty reduction of Village Community through Revival of Small Scale Water Harvesting Systems Goal Community Organisation Scale down technology Facilitating environment TANKFED AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

7  To bring back people managed tank governance  To build People Institutions for tank / pond management  To sustain tankfed agriculture and enhance productivity through Vayalagam Plant Clinics  To promote Microfinance activities  To create endowment / corpus at multiple level to safeguard tank systems in future OBJECTIVES

8  Initiated during 1992 – 93 as pilot project in Madurai District  Operational in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Pondicherry, Bihar, Maharastra and Orissa  Facilitates Community Owner Irrigation, Drinking and Waste Water Reuse Infrastructures through mainstream partnership  More than 2 lakh farmers organised in 2500 users associations in 6 states REACH AND ACHIEVEMENTS

9 Structure Tank Associations Tank Cascade Association District Tank Federation Panchayats DRDA / Other Govt. Agencies / Banks DHAN Foundation Tank Conservation Movement

10 Tanks as Ecosystems The second largest manmade wetland ecosystems in the world Centuries of Service and a History : Going beyond conventional understanding of sustainability Still functioning and thriving Used by Humans, Plants, animals and other species for economic value

11 Irrigation Tanks in a Part of Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India

12 Tharavai Tank Cascade

13 1. Preservation, Conservation and Development Perspective: PastPresentFuture IRRIGATION TANKS CONCERVATION: CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK P C u u C C u / RU P P – Preservation; C – Conservation; U – Use; RU – Re use

14 Enactment of Water Resources Preservation Act as that of Forest Protection Bill should be done immediately. Immediate ordinance to ban on diversion of water resources for other development purposes (Buildings,roads, bus stand etc) including Government use should be brought in. Enactment of Water Resources Preservation Act as that of Forest Protection Bill should be done immediately. Immediate ordinance to ban on diversion of water resources for other development purposes (Buildings,roads, bus stand etc) including Government use should be brought in. Encroachment of waterways and water resources has to be declared as a Criminal Act and Sin and it should be dealt with accordingly. Encroachment of waterways and water resources has to be declared as a Criminal Act and Sin and it should be dealt with accordingly. Promotion of water harvesting structures should be done massively to store substantial amount of rainfall not only to address water scarcity and water conflicts but also to recharge ground water and foster local management. Conservation and Reuse of water require immediate attention of all people. Promotion of water harvesting structures should be done massively to store substantial amount of rainfall not only to address water scarcity and water conflicts but also to recharge ground water and foster local management. Conservation and Reuse of water require immediate attention of all people.

15 Local Management TA Gramasabha TF CA Panchayat Union Gram Panchayat TA – Tank Association CA – Cascade Association TF – Tank Federation at block level

16 Promotion of nested institutions, non hiearchial, should be encouraged for local management. NGOs should be required to promote these institutions and build their capacity. Further institutions building process would be continued for long time to provide sustainability. Promotion and capacity building cost should be provided as a part of renovation programme. Promotion of nested institutions, non hiearchial, should be encouraged for local management. NGOs should be required to promote these institutions and build their capacity. Further institutions building process would be continued for long time to provide sustainability. Promotion and capacity building cost should be provided as a part of renovation programme. Panchayat system should provide legitimacy and adequate institutional space for Tank Association, Cascade Association and Tank Federation. Tank Associations would be encouraged to manage the water resources with adequate rights. Usufruct rights should be shared between Tank Associations and Gram Panchayat. Panchayat system should provide legitimacy and adequate institutional space for Tank Association, Cascade Association and Tank Federation. Tank Associations would be encouraged to manage the water resources with adequate rights. Usufruct rights should be shared between Tank Associations and Gram Panchayat.

17 People’s organisations should also be promoted at supra level (sub basin and river basin) for water sharing and resolving water conflicts. People’s organisations should also be promoted at supra level (sub basin and river basin) for water sharing and resolving water conflicts. Customary rights should be documented and revisited by the local communities to revise them if needed. Customary rights should be documented and revisited by the local communities to revise them if needed. Tank Associations should be empowered to collect water and land tax share and them with revenue and panchayat system and use their share only for the upkeep and management of tank systems. Tank Associations should be empowered to collect water and land tax share and them with revenue and panchayat system and use their share only for the upkeep and management of tank systems.

18 Tank based watershed development should be encouraged. Guidelines could be revised to include all water bodies’ renovation and creation within the watershed Tank based watershed development should be encouraged. Guidelines could be revised to include all water bodies’ renovation and creation within the watershed Pollution of water bodies should be treated as an offence and a criminal act. Pollution of water bodies should be treated as an offence and a criminal act. Ground water recharge is possible only through preservation and conservation of small scale water resources. Otherwise a ‘silent disaster’ would happen in many places because of race for ground water mining. Sand mining of waterways and riverbeds should be banned Ground water recharge is possible only through preservation and conservation of small scale water resources. Otherwise a ‘silent disaster’ would happen in many places because of race for ground water mining. Sand mining of waterways and riverbeds should be banned

19 THE PROJECT AREA RAMANATHAPURAM DISTRICT

20 THE COMMON SCENE FOR WATER

21 WATER SUPPLY : TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY

22 WATER SUPPLY : CONTEMPORARY AND MODERN

23

24 Excavation: Use of Men Excavation: Use of Machine

25 Community organising Community organising Deep excavation 2.5 m to 6 m to create a capacity of 8-10,000 Cu.m for population Deep excavation 2.5 m to 6 m to create a capacity of 8-10,000 Cu.m for population Transportation of earth and used for construction of village roads, school and temple grounds Transportation of earth and used for construction of village roads, school and temple grounds Construction of ring wells and inlet with regulators Construction of ring wells and inlet with regulators Construction of steps and fencing (optional) Construction of steps and fencing (optional) Creation of endowment funds Creation of endowment funds COMPONENT OF THE PROJECT

26 IMPROVED OORANIS

27 Innovative design of social organizing, simple and transparent project transactions Innovative design of social organizing, simple and transparent project transactions Ooranis are the cheapest and replicable quickly through simple methods Ooranis are the cheapest and replicable quickly through simple methods Ooranis are the most preferred because they are reliable, assured and convenient Ooranis are the most preferred because they are reliable, assured and convenient Ooranis reduce conflicts, drudgery and waste of time in waiting and fighting Ooranis reduce conflicts, drudgery and waste of time in waiting and fighting Ooranis provide productive time / leisure time for villagers Ooranis provide productive time / leisure time for villagers IWMI, COLOMBO RESEARCH STUDY RESULTS

28 SOURCE OF SUPPLY FOR OORANIS

29 QUALITY OF OORANI WATER AT SOURCE

30 BENEFITS OF OORANI (in %)

31 HOUSEHOLDS FETCHING WATER AT CONVENIENT TIME

32 HOUSEHOLDS WALKING > 1 km

33 HOUSEHOLDS SPENDING > 1/2 HOUR PER TRIP OF FETCHING

34 Effective methods to reduce turbidity at point of source and point of consumption need to be developed Effective methods to reduce turbidity at point of source and point of consumption need to be developed Bio sand filter at households Bio sand filter at households Modified vertical slow sand filter Modified vertical slow sand filter Chemical treatment (Chlorination), SODIS method Chemical treatment (Chlorination), SODIS method IMPROVEMENTS NEEDED IN THE PROJECT

35 SAFE DRINKING WATER AT HOUSEHOLD BY INTRODUCING BIO-SAND FILTER

36 GERM-FREE: A biosand filter placed in a house of one of the beneficiaries in S.Gopalapuram near Tirumangalam in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu

37 BSF- integrated Oorani project  No of blocks-1  No of villages-3  No of projects-1  No of Ooranies-3  No of beneficiaries-nearly 4500 peoples

38 Principles of Wastewater Management Reduce –Volume and/or pollution load –Source separation Storm water, grey water and black water in a house Cleaning wastewater and process wastewater in an industry Recycle –Collect & use directly or after treatment –Different uses Flushing Gardening Washing Groundwater recharge –Optimizes the use of water usually at low cost Treat –Often expensive and complex –No incentive to implement Safe Disposal PREFERENCE

39 Septic Tanks Simple and commonly used technology Process - sedimentation & sludge stabilization Liquid Retention time – 1 to 3 days Sludge removal: Every 1-5 years BOD Removal efficiency: 40-60% For better effluent quality, increase number of compartment or pass effluent through up flow filter Scum Storage Zone Digested Sludge Storage Zone Sludge Digestion Zone Sedimintation Zone

40 Anaerobic Baffle Reactor (ABR)  Wastewater flows upward through a series of sludge blanket reactors  BOD & TSS removal up to 80%

41 Biogas Attached toilets  Nepal has over 150,000 biogas plants out of which about 100,000 are toilet attached  Some institutional biogas plants treat wastewater and solid waste  Biogas attached public toilets

42

43 DEWATS plant –Settler –ABR-AF-PGF-Pond

44 Panaiyur-4 km Away from Madurai corporation limit Panaiyur Panchayat M.ANANDA -president of Panaiyur 23 kalanjiam SHGs -410 members Occupation: Weaving, agriculture, rice mill, merchants Open defecation is currently in practice existing community toilet for women

45 DISCRIPTIONCALCULATED Type of wastewaterDomestic WASTE WATER QUALITY Black water12000 liters Peak flow6-7hrs WASTE WATER CHARACTERISTICS pH8.4 – 9.0 COD3000 mg/l BOD1500 mg / l Average Temperature30 ° C NEW COMMUNITY TOILET USAGE USES1313 NO OF SEATS18

46 CBS DEWATS-2 Units-Community Toilet, DEWATS Total project cost lakh CBS unit-5.10 lakh DEWATS-9.85 lakh DRDA-GOVT contribution-49% People /Donor Contribution-51%

47 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) typically ranges from 10 to 20 mg/L for most municipal Wastewaters. Values below 100 mg/L pose no restriction to irrigation use. Total Suspended Solids (TSS) typically ranges from 10 to 20 mg/L for most municipal wastewaters. Values below 100 mg/L pose no restriction to irrigation use. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) typically ranges from 25 to 50 mg/L for most municipal wastewaters. Values below 150 mg/L pose no restriction to irrigation use

48 What Can We Do? 1.The existing water bodies should be desilted and deepened 2.Planting trees along the tank bund and fore shore to prevent encroachments. 3.Desilting all the tanks, supply and surplus channels Approx.cost :28Cr (Capacity App 220 MCM) 4.Sand mining should be banned on the Vaigai riverbed. 5.Wherever possible check dams should be constructed to store water. This will help in augmenting the ground water potential. Contd…

49 5.Ground water can be saved from contamination by preventing mixing of sewage in river water and in other water bodies. 6.Encroachments on drains and supply channels should be removed. Garbage and waste should not be dumped in water bodies. What Can We Do?


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