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Industrial Pollution Control CEV 421 E

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1 Industrial Pollution Control CEV 421 E
Department of Environmental Engineering Fall Semester (3+0) Prof. Dr. İlhan TALINLI

2 Course description Definitions Process survey
Industrial categorization Waste survey Pollution profile Data collection Management of industrial systems Standards for industries, legal aspects Waste management, pretreatment Industrial case studies Team works and presentations

3 Fundamental textbook(s) and other course material
Freeman, H.M. , Industrial Pollution prevention handbook , New York : McGraw-Hill, c1995. Eckenfelder, W.W., “Industrial Water Pollution Control”, McGraw-Hill, 1966. Talınlı, İ., unpublished course notes and documents in:

4 Course objectives and relationship to ABET program outcomes
The objective of this course is to make pollution profiles of the industries, categorization, control methodologies and technologies, system design, ethic concepts and solving of the engineering problems on industrial systems

5 Topics covered each week
Week 1: Introduction, aim, scope, establishing study groups for team works Week 2: Definitions of industrial pollution and industrial systems Week 3: Categorization and sources of industrial waste Week 4: Industrial categorization Week 5: Industrial pollution control approaches Week 6: Environmental management systems for industries Week 7: System design approaches Week 8: Organized industrial estates Week 9: Industrial case studies Week 10: Case study presentations Week 11: Case study presentations Week 12: Case study presentations Week 13: Case study presentations Week 14: Case study presentations

6 Definitions of industrial pollution and industrial systems
Production: All processes to obtain certain product by a/any raw material Process: All reactions having certain kinetics and taking place in certain conditions Process working conditions are continuous, batch and semi-batch Wastes are non-products or undesirable outputs which can not be evaluated for any purpose.

7 Definitions of industrial pollution and industrial systems (continued)
Continuous process: Raw material is fed as continuous and product is taken simultaneously. Batch process: Raw material is fed at zero time and product is taken at the end of the process time (e.g. fill and draw). Semi-batch process: When raw material is continuously fed, product is taken at certain periods (batch).

8 Definitions of industrial pollution and industrial systems (continued)
Schedule of the enterprises (shifts): Work time or production can be daily, weekly and seasonal. It is known “shift”. 3 shifts can be usually arranged at 8 a.m.-16 p.m., 16 p.m.-24 p.m., and 24 p.m.-8 a.m.

9 Global view to industry
Figure1 Input and output in an industrial system and Figure 2. Management concept based in an industry


11 Inputs and Outputs in Environmental Systems
ACTIVITY industry, agriculture, urbanization, mining etc. Raw Material Product, Service Energy By Product Reuse Recovery Non-product output Waste Hazardous Waste Solid Waste Wastewater Noise Air Emission Radioactive Waste Hospital Waste

12 Management Concept on Industrial Process Basis
Product Source PROCESS Source Management Product Management Emission Emission Management

13 Industrial Management Organization for Total Management Concept
Raw Material Additives The network of processes containing labor, man power and other sources Product Outputs Environmental Effects Threats -Direct -Indirect -During Usage -After -Other By Product Energy Water Air Land Non-product -Wastes -Emissions -Consumption of Sources -Risks -Impacts etc. Effects to Inputs

14 Mass and energy balance
For each process, mass and energy balance are made to reach waste characterization and species and amounts of the pollutants. It is important that which pollutants should be analyzed and selected as analytical methods.

15 Mass and energy balance (continued)
For example, in milk and milk product industry, if A process (pasteurization unit) does not use CN material as input, this pollutant should not be characterized in waste analysis. Mass and energy balance supplies the integration of the process and waste survey.

16 Mass and energy balance (continued)
In other words, nobody can do waste survey unless doing mass and energy balance related any process. For example, air pollutants can not be characterized without knowing the type of energy and incineration process.

17 Commonly used dimensions
Volume Concentration Load Are used as main units in pollution profile Volume is used especially for wastewater based on time or product such as m3/h, m3/day, m3/product

18 Commonly used dimensions (continued)
Product dimension which are produced in certain periods such as m3/m2 textile, m3/m metal, m3/ton cows, m3/kwh, m3/oil equ. energy, m3/m3 beer etc. Question: For dimensions above, which parameters are based. Product, raw material, energy?

19 Pollution Load Based on time Based on production
Load means mass unit of a specific pollutant per time unit or product characteristic. For instance, it expresses the loaded specific pollutant to environment.

20 Pollution Load (continued)
Based on time: Lt=Q*C, V/t*m/v, m3/day*kg/L Based on production: m3/day*g/L beer Commonly used units for organic matter of wastewaters in Environmental Engineering kg BOD5/h, kg COD/day, kg phenols/day

21 Pollution Load (continued)
Industrial pollution sources and loads Weaved textile dying kg BOD5/m fabric Slaughterhouse kg SS/ton carcass Metal finishing kg Cd/m2 metal Beer or beverages kg BOD5/m3 beer Pulp and paper kg COD/ton pulp Oil refinery kg TKN/kWh

22 Concentration Concentration is the numerical value of mass per unit volume Pollution load is amount of discharged pollutant per unit time from industry Question: When organized industrial estate (leather) discharges to river m3/day treated wastewater including 2 mg/l Cr, another industry discharges to same river 50 m3/day raw wastewater including 5 mg/l Cr. Compare two industries as pollution load. Which industry should be controlled according to this profile?

23 Population equivalency of pollution load
This is a parameter calculating population number which is equivalent to pollution load. Water usage per person= 200 l/person-day, domestic wastewater BOD5= 250 mg/l Pollution load per person= 50 g BOD5/day Question: Industry A discharges 100 kg BOD5/day to a lake. Calculate the population equivalency for this load. Solution: g BOD/day/ (50 g/person-day population equivalency) = 2000 person

24 Waste Classification Definition: Industrial waste classification is made in based on 8 types of waste. These are; Wastewater Air emission Solid waste Hazardous waste Medical or hospital waste Radioactive waste Noise pollution Sludge & Slurry

25 Wastewater Classification
Waste in form of liquid(but water) is known as waste water in industry and it is taken out. Wastewater generated by processes and other units Condensation water Cleaning and washing tool ,equipment and building water Off water of steam generator , boiler condensation water softening process and its regeneration waters originated by supplementary processes Domestic, social facilities, such as shower, toilet, cafeteria and laundry Field drainage and rain water

26 Wastewater Classification (continued)
Classification of Industrial Wastewater based on pollution: Process wastewater Associated processes wastewater Domestic wastewater

27 Hazardous Waste Definitions:
These wastes are defined as any material that are no longer desired and has no current or perceived value at a given place. Among variety of waste , hazardous waste is a hazardous substance that has been discarded or otherwise designated as a waste material , or one that may become hazardous by interaction with other substances. Generally, hazardous waste is defined as any waste which has hazard potential and hazardous effects to human health and environment. They required different management system from other conventional and traditional waste.

28 Hazardous Waste (continued)
A “solid waste” was defined by Congress as : Any garbage, refuse sludge from a waste treatment plant , water supply treatment plant, air pollution control facilities and other discarded materials, including solid, liquid, semi solid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations and from community activities. A “hazardous waste” was defined by Congress as : Solid waste, or combination of solid wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics may- cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.

29 Hazardous Waste (continued)
From this definitional beginning, Congress directed EPA in RCRA Section 3001 to follow a two-step process leading to the identification of hazardous wastes. First, EPA was directed to establish “criteria” to be used to identify the characteristics of hazardous waste and to actually list hazardous wastes. Factors that EPA had to consider in establishing the criteria included: toxicity, persistence, and degradability in nature; potential for accumulation in tissue, AND other related factors such as flammability, corrosiveness, and other hazardous characteristics.

30 Hazardous Waste (continued)
Their effects in two ways; - short-term effects (acute) - long-term effects (chronic) These are considered in four criteria; - toxicity - corrosiveness - flammability - reactivity

31 Management of Hazardous Waste
definition of hazardous waste determination of hazardous waste listing hazardous waste T/S/D Treatment technologies / Storage/ Disposal Biological treatment Physical- chemical treatment Incineration

32 Management of Hazardous Waste (continued)
In addition; deep well injection spent mining filling dumping to oceans dumping to space by rockets, etc. controlling the hazardous waste sites

33 Definition of Hazardous Waste
Wastes which have environmental acute or chronic hazard potential can be flammable, reactive, corrosive and toxic with their compositions, including material amount, physical forms, dispersion and diffusion in environment, usage styles going to environment by human activities, therefore; differing from conventional treatment and disposal methods and requiring management systems that includes environmental system’s (ecosystem) politic, social and economic concepts and identifying by specification and listing. (furthermore reading: Zararlı Atıkların Tanımı ve Yönetimi Projesi İ. Talınlı, 1995)

34 Air Emissions Assessment of the air pollutants in two ways;
Emissions (in chimney) Emissions (in process area, open and closed) Emission sources in industries; Incineration of the fuels to provide the energy for processes, offices and closed area. These emissions are evaluated in chimney according to thermodynamic conditions, boilers specifications and capacity.

35 Air Emissions (continued)
Emissions in open and closed area may be sourced by volatile materials used in process in gaseous form or dust and smog. They can be collected by vacuum or aspiration through chimney to atmosphere. They are known as controlled emissions in media however some gaseous pollutants may be still stay in the process atmosphere or in he labor or human lung. Indoor air quality should be evaluated according to occupational safety health.

36 Air Emissions (continued)
Some particulate air pollutants are also uncontrolled emissions. For example, storage of the refractor materials in open area, dust occurs and is transferred to atmosphere. Materials such as clinkers and refractors are stored in open area and transferred to atmosphere by wind. Chimney emissions: Incineration gases, volatile gases to chimney by asp., particulate materials to chimney. Medium emissions: Uncontrolled air pollutants and hazardous gases by inhalation.

37 Pollution based industrial categorization
The categorization approach is based on; Production type Materials used in production Occupational branches Pollution SIC (standard industrial classification) index-main headings Aim of the classification based on pollution is to determine the homogenous groups of industries with similar pollution profiles, on which control methods will depend on.

38 Main and sub-categorization
Main factors for sub-categorization; Production process and technology Raw materials Product Water usage Plant capacity Plant age and efficiency Personnel groups (shifts) Pollution profiles (waste characteristics) Treatment technologies Investment costs

39 Question Write an appropriate main factor for each subcategory given below; Main head: Textile industry Spring wool cleaning Wool fabric finishing Broad-woven fabric finishing Knit-woven finishing Carpet fabric finishing Stock ad fiber fabric finishing Process modified for reduced water usage Non-woven fabric finishing Felt fabric finishing Silk finishing

40 Question (continued) Main head: Metal finishing Ordinary metals
Precious metals Complex metals Hexavalent chromium plating Cyanide used processes Oily wastewater Wastewater including solvents

41 Question (continued) Main head: Milk and milk production industries
Milk reception Milk preparation and cream production Yoghurt and ayran production Butter Cheese Ice-cream Concentrated milk Milk powder production Concentrated cheese water Cheese water drying

42 Question (continued) Main head: Pharmaceutical industry
Fermentation processes Chemical synthesis Formulation Biological extraction and anti-biotics

43 Conceptual design of wastewater treatment system
The scope of this chapter is to make interpretations for the treatability test results and to build the optimum treatment system variations by building relationships between the parameters that are acquired from the waste water characterization which will be the basis for conceptual design in treatment of industrial waste water and pollution profile with the basic performance of the treatment system units.

44 Conceptual design of wastewater treatment system (continued)
In the frame of this goal: The concept of total management application approach in industries is taken as basis, Wastewater pollutant parameters are examined, The basic units used in wastewater treatment system and the cooperative units are examined and the basic functions and performances are evaluated The relationships between the collective and individual parameters are stated, In order to calculate the treatment plant performance in the basis of parameters with integration in the whole system and between the unit performance and the parameter that is supposed to be removed, a matrix and a method are developed By this way, it is hoped that without the treatability tests that are necessary for the appropriate and right system especially in wastewater treatment system design, a concept design and variations will be built for environmental engineering.

Reasons for implemented a waste monitoring program include: To assure the regulatory agencies that the industry is in compliance with the effluent quality requirements in the discharge permit; To ensure cognizance of product and material losses to the sewer; To maintain sufficient control of plant operations so that violation of permit specifications are minimized; and To develop the necessary data needed to ensure proper operation of the wastewater treatment facilities

46 Process and Waste Survey
In conducting a monitoring program, existing knowledge of the waste flow is usually insufficient to provide the basis for establishing comprehensive study. The process and waste survey will provide material balance of the flow of pollutants through a system.

47 Process and Waste Survey (continued)
The requirements of a useful flow diagram are summarized below: Detailed information concerning each production process The type of operations should be identified as continuous, batch, or intermittent, with frequency of waste releases given for the latter two. Raw materials, products and wastes should be listed on the flow diagram. The waste characteristics, such as flow, temperature and pH, should also be included.

48 Process and Waste Survey (continued)
Important factors to be considered in selecting the sampling stations are: The flow of the waste stream should be known or easily estimated or measured. The sampling station should be easily accessible with adequate safeguards. The wastewater should be well mixed.

49 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES The basis for any plant pollution abatement program or anticipated design criteria depends on information obtained by sampling. Thus, all subsequent decisions may be based on incorrect information if this step is not accurate; implemented. If a few basic principles are observed, and if those persons responsible for sampling are forewarned, reliable results can be obtained without expensive and costly re sampling. A good sampling program should: Ensure that the sample taken is truly representative of the waste stream; Use proper sampling techniques; and Protect the samples until they are analyzed waste

50 Biochemical Oxygen Demand
The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an estimate of the amount of oxygen required to stabilize biodegradable organic materials in a sample of wastewater by heterogeneous microbial population.

51 Chemical Oxygen Demand
The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a measure of the oxygen equivalent of the organic fraction in the sample which is susceptible to permanganate or dichromate oxidation in an acid solution.

52 Chemical Oxygen Demand (continued)
Generally, one would expect the ultimate BOD of a wastewater to approach the COD There are many factors which would negate this statement, however, especially when determining the BOD and COD for complex industrial wastes. These factors include: Many organic compounds, which are dichromate oxidizable, are not biochemically oxidizable. Certain inorganic substances, such as sulfides, sulfites, thiosulfates, nitrites, and ferrous iron are oxidized by dichromate, creating an inorganic COD, which is misleading when estimating the organic content of a wastewater. The BOD results may be affected by lack of seed acclimation, giving erroneously low readings. The COD results are independent of this variable. Certain organic compounds (e.g. straight chain, saturated aliphatic acids and alcohols) are not efficiently oxidized by Cr A silver sulfate catalyst is added to ensure efficient oxidation of these compounds.

53 Total Organic Carbon The organic carbon determination is free of the many variables, which plague the COD and BOD analyses, with more reliable and reproducible data being the net result. The total organic carbon concentration in a wastewater is a measure of organic content. While TOC measurements give no indication of the oxidation state of the carbon, correlations can often be made between TOC and occasionally BOD values for individual wastes.

54 Total Organic Carbon (continued)
In summary, it can be stated that COD/TOC and BOD/TOC are both valid measures of the organic character and both can be correlated to COD values in many applications.

55 Commonly used treatment units in wastewater treatment systems
Neutralization Tank Coagulation& Flocculation DAF Activated Carbon Adsorption Ion Exchange Chemical Oxidation Granular Filtration Activated Sludge Anaerobic Treatment Reverse Osmosis

56 Neutralization Many wastewaters contain acidic or alkaline substances which must be neutralized prior to being discharged into receiving bodies of water or conveyed to subsequent unit treatment processes. Neutralization, or adjustment of pH, may be used in the later case not only to protect downstream processes, but also to optimize their effectiveness.

57 Coagulation and Precipitation
Coagulation has been defined as the addition of a chemical to a colloidal dispersion which results in particle destabilization by the reduction in forces which tend to keep particles apart. Coagulation involves the reduction of surface charges and the formation of complex hydrous oxides. The process involves forming either flocculant suspensions of compounds which entrap desired pollutants and carry them out of solution or the formation of insoluble precipitates of the pollutants themselves.

58 Coagulation and Precipitation (continued)
Examples of former include organic suspended materials and examples of the latter include precipitates of phosphorus and heavy metals. After coagulation to destabilize the particles and flocculation to generate large particles, the materials can subsequently be separated from the wastewater by sedimentation, flotation, or filtration.

59 Dissolved Air Flotation
Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has been used for many years in the treatment of wastewaters for separation of suspended solids, oils, greases, fibers, and other low density solids from the carrier liquid as well as for the thickening of activated sludge and flocculated chemical sludges. The flotation process is accomplished by introducing pressurized wastewaters to atmospheric pressure and releasing the dissolved gas in excess of saturation. This reduces the specific gravity of SS or oily material by the attachment of fine gas bubbles to the particulate matter, enhancing gravity separation.

60 Activated Sludge The AS process is a continuous system in which aerobic biological growths are mixed with wastewaters then separated in a gravity clarifier. This process should provide an effluent with a soluble BOD5 of 15 to 40 mg/l, although the organic concentration of the effluent in terms of COD in the industrial sector may be as high as 500 to 1000 mg/l, depending on the concentration of non-biodegradable compounds originally in the wastewaters.

61 Activated Sludge (continued)
There are many impurities in industrial wastewaters that must be removed or altered by preliminary operations (pretreatment) before subsequent AS treatment can be considered. High concentrations of SS discharged directly to secondary biological processes can decrease overall process efficiency, either by reducing the active biological solids fraction or by creating a sludge less amenable to sludge handling. Removing oil by gravity separation is required in many industrial plants because oily waters have a deleterious effect on most secondary and tertiary treatment process.

62 Anaerobic Treatment of Organic Wastes
Traditionally, anaerobic degradation of organic materials has been associated with digestion of wastewater sludges which resulted from primary sedimentation of degradable organic solids or were generated during biological oxidation of soluble and colloidal organic materials. Anaerobic processes are also very effective for treating soluble and colloidal organic materials and to biologically reduce nitrogen in the form of nitrate to harmless nitrogen gas. Since the anaerobic system can obtain 50 to 70 percent organic destruction at a relatively low energy input, it may also be utilized very effectively for pre-treating soluble organic wastewaters prior to aerobic systems.

63 Activated Carbon Adsorption
Activated carbon adsorption is most often employed for the removal of organic constituents from wastewater. Although carbon is sometimes used as a catalyst for decholorination or oxidation of cyanide and for the removal of certain heavy metals, these special cases have limited applications to wastewater treatment.

64 Activated Carbon Adsorption (continued)
The principal applications of carbon adsorption for the treatment of organic wastewaters include the removal of non-degradable substances, such as color producing compounds and pesticides, and the reduction of specific organic constituents, such as phenols, in waste streams which contain relatively small concentrations of specific organic species. This process may be performed in combination with biological treatment for the removal of either degradable or refractory organic constituents.

65 Ion Exchange Ion exchange is a process in which ions, held by electrostatic forces to functional groups on the surface of a solid, are exchanged for ions of a similar charge in solution. Ion exchange is more often applied for the removal or exchange of dissolved inorganic salts in waters or wastewaters, such as hardness (calcium and magnesium) or heavy metals.

66 Chemical Oxidation The vocabulary of some regulatory authorities is rapidly evolving to include such terms as “resistant,” “refractory,” “incompatible,” and “perdurable” to describe those constituents which are not removed by conventional wastewater treatment methods. The objective of chemical oxidation in water and wastewater treatment is to transform undesirable chemical constituents to a more oxidized state which reduces the pollution potential.

67 Chemical Oxidation (continued)
It is often unnecessary to carry the oxidation of a compound to completion since, depending on the oxidant and oxidizing conditions, the intermediate oxidation products which may be formed will be of much lower toxicity or less objectionable characteristic than the original materials. Complete oxidation may not only be impractible from a treatment standpoint, but also represents a non-justified economical outlay.

68 Chemical Oxidation (continued)
Subsequently, chemical oxidation might be considered as a selective modification or elimination of objectionable or toxic substances, including : Inorganic constituents, such as Mn(II), Fe(II), S2-, CN-, SO32- and Organic compounds, such as phenols, amines, humic acids, other taste, odor, or color producing or toxic compounds, bacteria and algae

In fact, this approach depends on the predictions on which parameters and in what efficiency will the treatment units will work while the consideration that the effects of these units on the other units in the system is taken account, by using the table of unit removal efficiency. At this point it is important to realize that, the relationships between the parameters are have to be taken account. For instance if the parameter of COD is to be removed than the parameters such as Oil & Grease, Suspended Solids and all the other organic and inorganic parameters should be evaluated carefully. At this point, the most important parameters are collective parameters such as COD, BOD, SS, Oil& Grease, Phenols

70 CONCLUSION In the frame of the approach that is discussed above:
First of all, process survey must be done for the industrial wastewaters in order to learn about the inputs and outputs in the industry. A waste survey should be prepared according to process survey and then pollution profile must be done without any mistake. Only with a perfect characterization of a wastewater can an efficient design be done. Relationships between the parameters should be evaluated, especially the collective parameters must be considered as the most important ones For all the industrial wastewaters, treat ability tests must be done. However with a good characterization and perfect unit performance knowledge it is possible to have conceptual design in a very short period of time and in a safe way. All the units that will be used as the base of the design of the treatment system should be well defined. The effects of the treatment units on the other units in the system should be well evaluated.

71 CONCLUSION (continued)
“if you don’t satisfy by your solutions and answers, imagine that your brain is the best ecosystem and you have to balance some ethical pollution in it.” “each quantity has a quality of its own which was never reached before and which shall never be reached again.”

72 CONCLUSION (continued)
“Your destiny can behold for a good future, if you have a scientific thinking in your brain and clarity in your heart.” “taking an exam is nothing, thinking and its quality is everything. All achievements have quality of their own.” İ. TALINLI

73 CONCLUSION (continued)
Do not hate multiple choice because you will have to choose during your life, even your partner. The choices you made by your wisdom will always be much more effective than everything will İ. TALINLI

74 CONCLUSION (continued)
“we can make several things clearer, but we can not make anything clear.” Frank P. RAMSEY

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