Presentation on theme: "BAQ 20061 Initiatives taken for estimation and control of mercury from various sources in India Presented by Dr. G.K. Pandey, Adviser, Govt. Of India,"— Presentation transcript:
BAQ 20061 Initiatives taken for estimation and control of mercury from various sources in India Presented by Dr. G.K. Pandey, Adviser, Govt. Of India, Ministry of Env. & Forests At BAQ, 2006, 13-15 December,2006, Indonesia
BAQ 20062 Sources of Mercury Emissions in India Chlor-alkali plants Coal based power plants Electrical and Electronic Industries Medical Instruments using mercury Pesticides & fungicides Paints Indian Traditional Medicine Manufacturing Units
BAQ 20063 India’s Import of Mercury (MTPA) YearQty. 1996-97253.738 1997-98267.797 1998-99124.823 1999-00207.384 2000-01285.644 2001-02260.440 2002-03531.200 2003-04197.461 2004-05174.816 2005-06(till Jan.06)123.383 Total Mercury Imports by India (Source: DGCI & S, Ministry of Commerce,Govt. of India)
BAQ 20064 CHLOR-ALKALI INDUSTRY IN INDIA INSTALLED CAPACITY CAUSTIC SODA AS ON 31.3.2006 : 2.33 MILLION TPA a) MEMBRANE CELL BASED CAPACITY: 1.90 MILLION TPA b) MERCURY CELL BASED CAPACITY : 0.43 MILLION TPA TECHNOLOGY SHARE a) MEMBRANE CELL : 82% b) MERCURY CELL : 18%
BAQ 20065 CREP- A Regulatory & Voluntary Instrument ► CREP-Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection – Initiated by Ministry of Environment & Forests and agreed by the Indian Chlor-Alkali Industry. ► Voluntary commitment for Responsible care of the Environment as joined partnership for Pollution Control with Govt. of India & Regulatory bodies. ► CREP came into force on 13 th March, 2003, Thirteen Points Time Bound Action Plan. ► CREP for Chlor-Alkali Industry proved to be an instrument to drastically reduce Mercury Consumption & Emission to the Environment. ► A Task Force constituted to monitor progress of implementation of CREP Recommendations.
BAQ 20066 STATUS OF CREP ACTION POINTS SNACTION POINTACHIEVEMENT 1Complete recycling of Mercury bearing effluent by December 2003. All Units 2Installation of continuous on-line Mercury analyzer by June 2003. All Units 3Treatment of cell-room ventilation gas – limit for Mercury not to exceed 1 gm/t of product by December 2005. All Units 4De-mercurisation of Caustic Soda & limit for Mercury in Caustic Soda at 0.1 gm/t of product by December 2004. All Units except One (Commissioning expected in March, 2006) 5Reduction of Mercury in H 2 gas at 0.5 gm/t by December 2004. All Units 6Installation of common full-fledged salt washery unit at source by Dec. 2003. All Units 7Capping of existing completed disposal sites by June 2004 (Action plan to be submitted by June 2003). All Units
BAQ 20067 STATUS OF CREP ACTION POINTS (CONTD.) SNACTION POINTACHIEVEMENT 8Installation of Mercury distillation units by June, 03.All Units 9Brine sludge treatment and water leachable Mercury content in brine mud at < 0.1 mg/l before disposal in Secured Landfill. All Units 10Reduction of Mercury consumption at < 50 gm/t of product by December 2005. All Units 11Total Mercury release to environment at < 2.0 gm/t of product by December 2005. All Units 12The Mercury cell plants will switch over to Membrane cell technology in a time bound manner for which action plan will be prepared by respective plants within six months (Sept., 2003). All Units except One 13Industry to submit action plan covering the pollutional and safety aspects for Chlorine handling to prevent any accident / release of Cl 2 within three months (June, 2003). All Units
BAQ 20068 CONTROL MEASURES TAKEN UP BY INDIAN INDUSTRY Renewal of the secondary cells to eliminate leakage of Mercury and Mercury Emissions in cell room. Use of Mercury pumps with sealed glands. Less opening of cells in the cell house (End box & top box covers provided) Installation of distillation unit for effective recovery of Mercury from solid waste emanating from cell room / Mercury treatment plant. Lining of cell house floor to prevent Mercury loss due to penetration in floors including increased illumination of ground floor in cell house. Recycling of Mercury bearing effluent. Hydrogen gas treatment by Mercury removal by deep cooling (scrubbing, cooling and chilling system). Mercury recovery from waste and sludge. Use of improved salt quality. Safe disposal of brine sludge to secured landfill with leachate collection system. Better work practices and good house keeping, including training of workmen. Periodical monitoring of Mercury emissions including working out Mercury mass balance.
BAQ 20069 MERCURY CONSUMPTION IN INDIAN MERCURY CELL BASED CHLOR-ALKALI INDUSTRY
BAQ 200610 MERCURY EMISSION LEVELS Average gms/T of Caustic Production
BAQ 200611 INDIAN MERCURY TECHNOLOGY VIS-A-VIS EUROPIAN SCENARIO SNCONTENTINDIAEUROPE 1Share of Mercury Technology 18%46% 2Mercury Capacity Cut / Converted to Membrane Cells 40% in last 5 years 30% in last 15 years 3Reduction in Mercury Emissions 90% in 3 years96% in 27 years 4Phase OutBy 2012 as per CREP Directive By 2020, that too on voluntarily basis, at the end of economic life of respective units.
BAQ 200612 Mercury content in coal Source :BHEL Report, 2004 Sl.No.Name of coal based power plantMercury in coal (ug/g) 1.GHTTP, Lehra, Mohabatt0.26 2Anpara, UP (BTPS)0.26 3North Chennai0.33 4NLC-TPS II0.18 5Chandrapura STPS0.325 6Kolghat TPS0.61 7Talchar TPS0.33 8Gandhinagar TPS0.42 Mean : 0.376 ug/g range: 0.18-0.61 ug/g
BAQ 200613 Mercury levels in vegetables, crops, fish, drinking water and milk (Source: ITRC-1998) Sample MatrixRange and SEPermissible level (IRPTC) Vegetables (ug/g)0.0016 - 1.6100.358 + 0.0530.5 Food Crops (ug/g)0.0002 - 0.5310.189 + 0.0360.5 Drinking Water (ug/g)N.D. – 1.610.163 + 0.1001.0 Fish (ug/g)0.057 - 0.2670.168 + 0.0280.5 Milk (ug/l)1.0004 – 85.9019.024 + 6.7001-3* Mercury level in human blood(ng/ml) 0-1498-WHO 10 ug/dl Mercury range in Hair(ug/g) 0-69.4-- *nano grams Value is prescribed for soft drinks as no value is prescribed for milk.
BAQ 200614 Environment and Health Risk Studies Commissioned by MoEF 2005-2006 Monitoring of Hg in different components of environment Bio-magnification and bioaccumulation studies Occupational and health risk studies in chlor- alkali plants Studies are in progress
BAQ 200615 CONCLUSION Command and control systems were not effective / did not work very well. Voluntary compliance proved more effective. Significant reduction in Mercury Consumption/ Emissions achieved through CREP. Time frame for change over to Membrane Cell Technology evolved and being complied. Indian Chlor-Alkali Industry is likely be Mercury Free by 2012. New environmental and health risk studies would help in evolving strategy for taking control measures to reduce Hg emissions from other sources.