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Sewage and Organic Wastes TREN 3P14: Sustainable Integrated Waste Management David T. Brown.

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Presentation on theme: "Sewage and Organic Wastes TREN 3P14: Sustainable Integrated Waste Management David T. Brown."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sewage and Organic Wastes TREN 3P14: Sustainable Integrated Waste Management David T. Brown

2 Water Pollutants toxics toxics nutrients nutrients suspended matter suspended matter pathogens pathogens thermal pollution thermal pollution dissolved gases dissolved gases anthropogenic origin (e.g. industrial effluent, municipal sewage, tourism operations) anthropogenic origin (e.g. industrial effluent, municipal sewage, tourism operations) natural origin (e.g. silt, mineral nutrients, wild animal wastes) natural origin (e.g. silt, mineral nutrients, wild animal wastes)

3 Significant concern in the tourism industry Water quality Water quality Water quantity Water quantity Aesthetic concerns Aesthetic concerns Disease and pathogens Disease and pathogens Local equity issues Local equity issues

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6 Controlling Water Pollution Upstream: Upstream: before the problem occurs Downstream: Downstream: after the problem occurs

7 Upstream Methods of Controlling Water Pollution process modification in industry: elimination of pollutants and toxics process modification in industry: elimination of pollutants and toxics avoidance of direct discharge into: avoidance of direct discharge into: – water bodies – storm sewers – sanitary sewers identification of storm drains (e.g. Yellow Fish Road project) identification of storm drains (e.g. Yellow Fish Road project)

8 Upstream Methods of Controlling Water Pollution decoupling of storm and sanitary sewers decoupling of storm and sanitary sewers runoff control: runoff control: – increasing absorptive surfaces – avoiding erosion – maintaining streambank and shoreline vegetation legislation and regulation: guidelines and laws establishing limits on discharge legislation and regulation: guidelines and laws establishing limits on discharge

9 Neolithic revolution small towns and settlements -> human excreta control generally non- problematic small towns and settlements -> human excreta control generally non- problematic SEWAGE

10 “In days of old When knights were bold And toilets weren’t invented They’d leave their loads Upon the roads And walk away contented.” SEWAGE

11 Post - Neolithic revolution: Post - Neolithic revolution: Large towns and cities -> human waste control became a problem human waste control became a problem high-density living required technologies for handling human wastes in urban areas: chamber pots and open gutters chamber pots and open gutters pit privies / trench latrines/ outhouses pit privies / trench latrines/ outhouses septic systems and variants septic systems and variants centralized sewage collection and treatment systems centralized sewage collection and treatment systems SEWAGE

12 "Our excreta--not wastes, but misplaced resources-- end up destroying food chains, food supply and water quality in rivers and oceans....How did it come to pass that we devised such an enormously wasteful and expensive system to solve a simple problem?“ - Sim van der Ryn, ‘The Toilet Papers’ (1978)

13 Downstream Methods of Managing Sewage: Small scale Temporary / short term: Temporary / short term: –packing it out –single-use holes –pit privies –trench latrines Meyer, Kathleen How to shit in the woods : an environmentally sound approach to a lost art. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, Calif.

14 Downstream Methods of Managing Sewage: Small scale Long-term Long-term –outhouses –settling ponds –septic tanks –septic fields –composting toilets van der Ryn, Sim (republished and revised 1999). The Toilet Papers: Recycling Waste and Conserving Water. Chelsea Green Publishing, Vermont. Online edition available at

15 Tourism operations:

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19 Land-based wastewater treatment: Surface spray

20 Land-based wastewater treatment: Overland flow

21 Land-based wastewater treatment: Subsurface infiltration

22 Downstream Methods of Sewage Treatment: Large Scale

23 domestic sewage treatment: domestic sewage treatment: – preliminary: screening and removal of large contaminants – primary: straining and settling of solids – secondary: removal of biodegradable organic matter and nutrients – tertiary: removal of residual dissolved nutrients and pollutants Downstream Methods of Sewage Treatment

24 effluent treatment processes: effluent treatment processes: – mechanical: filtering, gravity separation – chemical: flocculation, coagulation – biological: microbes or macrophytes aerobic or anaerobic aerobic or anaerobic – disinfection: chlorination, ozonation, etc. (pathogen control) (pathogen control) Downstream Methods of Sewage Treatment

25 ‘physical plant’/ ‘engineered’ approach (usually centralized, large scale) ‘physical plant’/ ‘engineered’ approach (usually centralized, large scale) ‘constructed wetland’ approach (centralized or decentralized, large or small scale) ‘constructed wetland’ approach (centralized or decentralized, large or small scale) Downstream Methods of Sewage Treatment

26 Primary Sewage Treatment BAR SCREEN GRIT CHAMBER SETTLING TANK CHLORINATION TANK SLUDGE DIGESTER SLUDGE DRYING BED Raw sewage Sludge outflow

27 Secondary Sewage Treatment BAR SCREEN GRIT CHAMBER SETTLING TANK CHLORINATION TANK AERATION TANK SETTLING TANK 2 SLUDGE DIGESTER SLUDGE DRYING BED Activated sludge outflow Air pump Raw sewage Methane

28 Constructed Wetland

29 S.W.A.M.P. (SEWAGE WASTE AMENDMENT MARSH PROJECT) Niagara on the Lake, Ontario EXPERIMENTAL CELLS

30 Constructed Wetland EXPERIMENTAL CELLS

31 Constructed Wetland macrophytes Cattails and Water Hyacinth

32 Large scale constructed wetland Saha Pat Industrial Park, Laem Chabang, Thailand

33 Settling tank Saha Pat Industrial Park, Laem Chabang, Thailand

34 Sludge dewatering and drying Saha Pat Industrial Park, Laem Chabang, Thailand

35 Aeration pond Saha Pat Industrial Park, Laem Chabang, Thailand

36 Outflow into constructed wetland Saha Pat Industrial Park, Laem Chabang, Thailand

37 Large scale constructed wetland Saha Pat Industrial Park, Laem Chabang, Thailand

38 Waterless toilet technologies Clivus Multrum composting toilet Clivus Multrum composting toilet converts human and organic wastes into odourless compost converts human and organic wastes into odourless compost

39 Waterless toilet technologies Scalable Scalable Waterless Waterless Low energy Low energy Suitable for remote areas Suitable for remote areas Now CSA approved Now CSA approved

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42 Water and Legislation multijurisdictional: multijurisdictional: federal, provincial, and municipal areas of responsibility federal, provincial, and municipal areas of responsibility multifaceted: multifaceted: laws and regulations deal with – conservation and management of water resources; protection of aquatic life – pollution and liquid discharge – drinking water standards

43 Federal Water Legislation (in areas of federal jurisdiction) Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) : regulates the release of specified toxic substances, the concentration of nutrients in products (e.g. nitrates, phosphates); national regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents Fisheries Act: forbids the depositing of deleterious substances in any waters frequented by fish; regulates aquatic toxicity testing; regulates pulp and paper mill effluents and requires monitoring of effects on fish habitat

44 Provincial Water Legislation Provincial Water Legislation Ontario Water Resources ActOntario Water Resources Act: Section 30(1) prohibits the discharge of any material into any water body, shoreline, or bank that may impair the quality of the water Ontario Water Resources Act Environmental Protection Act (EPA) Environmental Protection Act (EPA) : Subsection 14: prohibits discharge of any contaminant into the natural environment that causes or is likely to cause an adverse effect Subsection 14 Environmental Protection Act (EPA) Subsection 14

45 Water Quality Guidelines, Policies, and Objectives: cover water quality for many types of water uses and aquatic environments (e.g. water storage structures, sewage plant discharge, drinking water quality objectives and treatment requirements, etc.) cover water quality for many types of water uses and aquatic environments (e.g. water storage structures, sewage plant discharge, drinking water quality objectives and treatment requirements, etc.) legally enforceable when incorporated into a Certificate of Approval or a Control Order legally enforceable when incorporated into a Certificate of Approval or a Control Order Banned and Phased-Out Chemicals: primary and secondary lists of substances to be banned, phased out, or reduced in use due to their persistence in water or aquatic systems primary and secondary lists of substances to be banned, phased out, or reduced in use due to their persistence in water or aquatic systems

46 Drinking Water: Municipalities are responsible for conforming to provincial water quality and treatment guidelines for drinking water from surface and ground sources Drinking Water: Municipalities are responsible for conforming to provincial water quality and treatment guidelines for drinking water from surface and ground sources

47 MISA (Municipal, Industrial Strategy for Abatement) program aimed at the virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminants from all discharges into Ontario waterways program aimed at the virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminants from all discharges into Ontario waterways dealt with direct dischargers (into surface waters, e.g. sewage treatment plants, certain industries) and indirect dischargers (into municipal sewer systems). dealt with direct dischargers (into surface waters, e.g. sewage treatment plants, certain industries) and indirect dischargers (into municipal sewer systems).

48 Objectives: identify and measure toxic substances in discharges identify and measure toxic substances in discharges increase emphasis on control technlogy increase emphasis on control technlogy pollution prevention and reduction in multi-media transfer of pollutants pollution prevention and reduction in multi-media transfer of pollutants strengthen abatement and enforcement mechanisms -> eventual virtual elimination of persistent toxic substances strengthen abatement and enforcement mechanisms -> eventual virtual elimination of persistent toxic substances

49 Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement Advisory Committee was eliminated by Harris government, and MISA program severely weakened. Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement Advisory Committee was eliminated by Harris government, and MISA program severely weakened. Avenues for both public input and multi- stakeholder input to government decision- making were removed. Avenues for both public input and multi- stakeholder input to government decision- making were removed. Starting in 1995, the Harris Government weakened or revoked nearly every environmental protection law in Ontario and numerous regulations under these laws. Starting in 1995, the Harris Government weakened or revoked nearly every environmental protection law in Ontario and numerous regulations under these laws.

50 Every aspect of environmental protection was affected, including controls on air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, waste disposal and recycling, urban sprawl, energy use and climate change, natural heritage and biodiversity protection, mining, and forestry. Every aspect of environmental protection was affected, including controls on air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, waste disposal and recycling, urban sprawl, energy use and climate change, natural heritage and biodiversity protection, mining, and forestry.DETAILS: Canadian Environmental Law Association (http://www.cela.ca/): Environmental Deregulation in Ontario Canadian Environmental Law Association (http://www.cela.ca/): Environmental Deregulation in Ontario Canadian Environmental Law Association (http://www.cela.ca/) Environmental Deregulation in Ontario Canadian Environmental Law Association (http://www.cela.ca/) Environmental Deregulation in Ontario

51 Discharges to Sewers: Municipal sewer use by-laws regulate substances which can be discharged to sanitary, combined, or storm sewers. Based on MOE Model Sewer Use Bylaw. In absence of municipal by-laws, the Ontario Clean Water Agency regulated these parameters. Harris Government Bill 107 promoted privatization of municipal water and sewer infrastructure without voter assent. Harris Government Bill 107 promoted privatization of municipal water and sewer infrastructure without voter assent. Budgets for monitoring and regulation were slashed. Budgets for monitoring and regulation were slashed. Municipal Water Legislation

52 E. Coli contamination of municipal water supply from cattle manure results in hundreds of illnesses and seven deaths, including two-year old child E. Coli contamination of municipal water supply from cattle manure results in hundreds of illnesses and seven deaths, including two-year old child Tragedy deemed preventable Tragedy deemed preventable Incompetent management by Koebel brothers (managers of water supply), lack of adequate water testing, excessive budget cutbacks and deregulation all identified as factors in tragedy Incompetent management by Koebel brothers (managers of water supply), lack of adequate water testing, excessive budget cutbacks and deregulation all identified as factors in tragedy Walkerton

53 Further Details: The Walkerton Tragedy: The Walkerton Tragedy: Walkerton Flash presentation: Walkerton Flash presentation: Walkerton Inquiry report: Walkerton Inquiry report:

54 2002: Tory government introduced Safe Drinking Water Act Safe Drinking Water Act Sustainable Water and Sewage Systems Act Sustainable Water and Sewage Systems Act to guard against another water tragedy like Walkerton to guard against another water tragedy like Walkerton Act authorized the government to implement key recommendations in Walkerton inquiry report Act authorized the government to implement key recommendations in Walkerton inquiry report

55 Acts criticized as inadequate, as source contamination concerns not addressed Acts criticized as inadequate, as source contamination concerns not addressed Tories defeated in 2003 Tories defeated in 2003 Liberal government elected 2003 Liberal government elected 2003 Introduced Clean Water Act (Dec 2005) Introduced Clean Water Act (Dec 2005)Clean Water Act Clean Water Act

56 The Act ensures that communities are able to identify potential risks to their supply of drinking water, and take action to reduce or eliminate these risks. The Act ensures that communities are able to identify potential risks to their supply of drinking water, and take action to reduce or eliminate these risks. Municipalities, conservation authorities, landowners, farmers, industry, community groups and the public all work together to meet common goals. Municipalities, conservation authorities, landowners, farmers, industry, community groups and the public all work together to meet common goals. Clean Water Act Clean Water Act (received Royal Assent on October 19, 2006)

57 Other related Ontario government initiatives: Watershed-based source protection planning Watershed-based source protection planning Watershed-based source protection planning Watershed-based source protection planning Revision of Permits To Take Water Revision of Permits To Take Water Permits To Take Water Permits To Take Water Nutrient Management Nutrient Management Nutrient Management Nutrient Management Groundwater Studies Groundwater Studies Groundwater Studies Groundwater Studies


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