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A Natural Approach to the Treatment of Effluent. Effluent leaving the house encompasses fresh water and organic matter. This can be broken into two categories:

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Presentation on theme: "A Natural Approach to the Treatment of Effluent. Effluent leaving the house encompasses fresh water and organic matter. This can be broken into two categories:"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Natural Approach to the Treatment of Effluent

2 Effluent leaving the house encompasses fresh water and organic matter. This can be broken into two categories: 1. Black water - high solids (bio-solids from toilet, food scraps from kitchen) /Low volume liquids. 2. Grey water - low solids (hair, lint, body fats, skin) / High volume liquids. Effluent leaving the house encompasses fresh water and organic matter. This can be broken into two categories: 1. Black water - high solids (bio-solids from toilet, food scraps from kitchen) /Low volume liquids. 2. Grey water - low solids (hair, lint, body fats, skin) / High volume liquids. What is Effluent ?

3 It would seem logical that these two flows require two different treatment processes: * Commonly the two flows are connected at the source – this compounds the problem creating a homogenous mix that requires additional treatment. * Surge loads from baths & w/m’s also increase the load on the system’s performance.

4 Common on-site treatment options Primary Treatment Privy Pit- Compost Composting System-Heat Septic Tank- Anaerobic Vermicomposting- Using worms Secondary Treatment Home Treatment Plants; AWTS- Aerobic- Blowers/power 24/7 Sand Filters Textile Filters Tertiary Treatment Chlorination U/V Ozone Primary Treatment Privy Pit- Compost Composting System-Heat Septic Tank- Anaerobic Vermicomposting- Using worms Secondary Treatment Home Treatment Plants; AWTS- Aerobic- Blowers/power 24/7 Sand Filters Textile Filters Tertiary Treatment Chlorination U/V Ozone

5 Composting: an aerobic process that uses heat. Advantages Cost effective Converts bio-mass into fertiliser Locatable under the dwelling No water Consumption Disadvantages High maintenance Can Smell Typical Output Range (Leach ate) BOD gO/m 3 TSS 80+ g/m 3 Advantages Cost effective Converts bio-mass into fertiliser Locatable under the dwelling No water Consumption Disadvantages High maintenance Can Smell Typical Output Range (Leach ate) BOD gO/m 3 TSS 80+ g/m 3

6 Septic Tanks: A process using anaerobic bacteria. Floatable (scum) “Clear Zone” Heavy material sinks (sludge) Airspace Flow Plate Advantages Cost effective. Disadvantages Putrefies the liquid Smells Surge loads carry nutrients Requires contents to be removed off-site Requires major earth works to install large tanks Typical Output Range (With Outlet Filter) BOD gO/m 3 TSS g/m 3 Advantages Cost effective. Disadvantages Putrefies the liquid Smells Surge loads carry nutrients Requires contents to be removed off-site Requires major earth works to install large tanks Typical Output Range (With Outlet Filter) BOD gO/m 3 TSS g/m 3

7 Package Plants AWTS- Aerated Water Treatment Systems Primary Septic Tanks with Sand Filters Primary Septic Tanks with Textile Filers All the above require; require external power 24/7. Maintenance contracts- external dependency for supply Replacement of wearing parts Sucker truck- empty primary solids every 3years Which in-turn is disposed of where?

8 Being responsible for our resources: There is no such thing as “waste water” It is our responsibility to restore “used water” to a quality that is safe for the environment. It is also more sustainable (where possible) to minimise dependency on active systems e.g. electric pumps, suction trucks etc.. There is no such thing as “waste water” It is our responsibility to restore “used water” to a quality that is safe for the environment. It is also more sustainable (where possible) to minimise dependency on active systems e.g. electric pumps, suction trucks etc..

9 The challenge is to create a sustainable interface between our current effluent disposal practices and our environment

10 The Solution is Simple: Look at how natural ecosystems process by-products or effluent…

11 plants food All decaying All decaying organic compounds soil water

12 1. Food Source – animal faeces, carcasses, leaves are all compost Worms and micro organisms - feed on compost and convert it into soils. 3. Soil and rock – home for organisms which feed and convert the nutrients and water 4. Plants – also live in the soil which take up water and nutrients used for transpiration and growth 5. Gravity - returns excess water to the sea which in turn evaporates back into the atmosphere completing the hydro-cycle 1. Food Source – animal faeces, carcasses, leaves are all compost Worms and micro organisms - feed on compost and convert it into soils. 3. Soil and rock – home for organisms which feed and convert the nutrients and water 4. Plants – also live in the soil which take up water and nutrients used for transpiration and growth 5. Gravity - returns excess water to the sea which in turn evaporates back into the atmosphere completing the hydro-cycle An Ecosystem is a Closed Loop (No “WASTES”)

13 A diverse ecosystem of plants, animals, fertile soil, clean water and thus a healthy planet A diverse ecosystem of plants, animals, fertile soil, clean water and thus a healthy planet Finished product:

14 We are part of the ecosystem too… Each species has a specific role and place within the eco-system: their niche! Each species has a specific role and place within the eco-system: their niche! If we work with nature… If we work with nature… Nature will work for us. Nature will work for us. We can nurture species by maintaining their niche… We can nurture species by maintaining their niche…

15 The AutoFlow System; Primary Treatment for Solids:

16 Vermicomposting: an aerobic process, employing worms and micro-organisms.

17 Advantages: Cost effective Converts bio-mass into fertiliser Small footprint - locatable under the dwelling Minimal odor Disadvantages Separate black and grey water flows Typical Output Range BOD gO/m3 TSS 4-50 g/m3

18 Compost Worms will consume at least half their own body weight a day!

19 The Bag System

20 Primary Treatment for liquids…

21 The Grey water filter Advantages Cost effective. Converts bio-mass into fertiliser Locatable under the dwelling Disadvantages?? Typical Output Range BOD gO/m 3 TSS 4-50 g/m 3 An aerobic process that screens gross solids and captures soluble material, ie, soap and body fats.

22 Secondary Treatment for Liquids…

23 Contact with oxygen will contribute to the conversion of ammonia nitrogen to nitrates. Fixed film reactors with high surface areas maximise the number of active microbes. Therefore a packed filter bed with a media having both a relatively high surface area and void ratio is beneficial to upgrading the effluent. Most of the oxygen, which diffuses into the effluent while flowing across the media surface, can therefore be used by aerobic nitrifying bacteria to oxidise ammonia nitrogen to nitrates. In the process, alkalinity present in the effluent is reduced. Dosing of the effluent allows a rest period for assimilation, the key to long-term performance. Contact with oxygen will contribute to the conversion of ammonia nitrogen to nitrates. Fixed film reactors with high surface areas maximise the number of active microbes. Therefore a packed filter bed with a media having both a relatively high surface area and void ratio is beneficial to upgrading the effluent. Most of the oxygen, which diffuses into the effluent while flowing across the media surface, can therefore be used by aerobic nitrifying bacteria to oxidise ammonia nitrogen to nitrates. In the process, alkalinity present in the effluent is reduced. Dosing of the effluent allows a rest period for assimilation, the key to long-term performance. This is primarily achieved through oxidization

24 The Dosing Siphon The heart of the system No moving parts No small orifices to block Well proven and reliable When used in conjunction with a media of high surface area the dosing container becomes a… The heart of the system No moving parts No small orifices to block Well proven and reliable When used in conjunction with a media of high surface area the dosing container becomes a…

25 During the dose cycle, oxygen is drawn into the media and captured gases are released from the media pores.During the dose cycle, oxygen is drawn into the media and captured gases are released from the media pores. Organic material hangs on the surface and is consumed.Organic material hangs on the surface and is consumed. Small footprintSmall footprint Easy to retro fit any system (fall away from the B/R is required)Easy to retro fit any system (fall away from the B/R is required) Batch Reactor

26 Surface area is the Key Almost any media is suitable for growing microbes. Almost any media is suitable for growing microbes. The higher the surface area the greater the number of micro-organisms developed. The higher the surface area the greater the number of micro-organisms developed. Mordenite and Zeolites have the greatest surface area. Mordenite and Zeolites have the greatest surface area.

27 Mordenite Mordenite as a media is favoured in this process for the following reason: Mordenite's unique 'cage-like' molecular structure, gravel filter beds are rich in macro, meso and micro-pores, Mordenite has an effective capacity to absorb positively charged ions, molecules and particles. As a result of this, a Mordenite bed removes contaminants both by physical separation and by the chemical cation adsorption mechanism. Natural Mordenite has a particularly high affinity to ammonia ions, with adsorption capacity of 8-12 g/kg. The Mordenite also acts to buffer the pH, minimising fluctuations and the need for corrective action. It also absorbs metal ions as well as ammonia, and so, can also reduce the water hardness. Mordenite will not blind, therefore is an ideal media for polishing effluent and water.

28 Dosing has now become mandatory throughout most NZ Councils. The Soil Type dictates the approach: Clay soils require large areas for dispersal. Sand/free draining areas require a high quality of treatment prior to dispersal. Evapo-transpiration increases the uptake rate in all situations. Application is usually applied below ground level via either, a low pressure pipe (LPP) distribution network or RAAM pressure compensating drip irrigation. Dosing has now become mandatory throughout most NZ Councils. The Soil Type dictates the approach: Clay soils require large areas for dispersal. Sand/free draining areas require a high quality of treatment prior to dispersal. Evapo-transpiration increases the uptake rate in all situations. Application is usually applied below ground level via either, a low pressure pipe (LPP) distribution network or RAAM pressure compensating drip irrigation. Application to Land

29 Low pressure pipe (LPP) is an effective and sustainable way to achieve effective dispersion and minimise local saturation

30 An Evapo-transpiration Field

31 The Vertical Flow Contact Filter (VFCF) Dosing maintains a moist environment, essential for maintaining life. It also distributes the effluent across the entire bed. Effluent is dosed over a free draining bed of media. The top soil layer is heavily planted which supports the soil dwellers and draws oxygen into the media.

32 Output Data from a single pass VFCF Sample Date Jan 01 19/2/01 Effluent 9/8/01 Effluent 20/9/01 Influent 20/9/01 Effluent CBOD TSS NH3 < <0.1 NO TOTP Turb.ntu

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