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Small Scale Industries and its Pollution Potential Nivit Kumar Yadav Centre for Science and Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Small Scale Industries and its Pollution Potential Nivit Kumar Yadav Centre for Science and Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Small Scale Industries and its Pollution Potential Nivit Kumar Yadav Centre for Science and Environment

2 Small Scale Industries Hand Tools Locks Scientific Instruments Diesel Engines and Parts Textile Industries Pharmaceuticals Edible oil and vanaspati Soaps and Detergents Paper and Board mills Safety matches Stainless Steel Utensils Wax Candles Fire Works Domestic Utensils - Aluminium

3 Small Scale Industries Definition An industrial undertaking in which the investment in fixed assets in plant and machinery whether held on ownership terms on lease or on hire purchase does not exceed Rs 10 million.

4 Spread across the country States/UTsNo. of SSIsStates/UTsNo. of SSIsStates/UTsNo. of SSIs Jammu & Kashmir20782Himachal Pradesh18139Punjab69604 Chandigarh1536Uttrakhand30268Haryana43945 Delhi7676Rajasthan65967Uttar Pradesh287627 Bihar74868Sikkim244Arunachal Pradesh469 Nagaland3479Manipur5294Mizoram4458 Tripura1146Meghalaya4257Assam21837 West Bengal49249Jharkhand28468Orissa19815 Chhattisgarh41209Madhya Pradesh154439Gujarat186106 Maharashtra134212Andhra Pradesh72107Karnataka159882 Kerala197842Tamil Nadu316518Total2031910

5 Why SSIs? Strong Case: The sector employs 17 million people and is the second largest employer of India's workforce after agriculture. Value addition to economy: SSIs accounts for 95% of all industrial units in the country and 40% of total output. Decentralised industrial development

6 Energy Inefficient High energy consumption: The total energy consumed in the SSIs is in the order of about 8000 MW. Less efficient in process: Old technology (foundry industry in Howrah is four decade old), lack of finance, lack of technical knowledge

7 Energy Inefficient Glass Industry Cluster at Firozabad

8 Energy Intensive – High potential for saving High potential for saving: SSIs offer an annual energy saving potential of about 1000 MW which is equivalent to Rs. 28000 Million. Opportunity:  5 - 10% energy saving is possible simply by better housekeeping measures.  10-15% is possible with small investments like low cost retrofits, use of energy efficient devices and controls etc. Quantum of saving is much higher if high cost measures like major retrofit, process modifications etc. are considered.

9 Water pollution from SSIs in India IndustryCluster regionsWastewaters generated (million litres per day) EngineeringHand Tools — Jallandhar and Nagaur Locks — Aligarh Scientific Instruments — Ambala, Ajmer Bicycle and Parts — Ludhiana Brass Parts — Jamnagar Diesel Engines and Parts — Kolhapur, Agra, Rajkot, Coimbatore, Ghaziabad 2125 Paper and Board mills1087 Textile IndustriesWoolen and Cotton Hosiery — Tiruppur, Ludhiana, Calcutta, Delhi 450 Organic Chemicals60 TanneriesLeather and leather products — Chennai, Ambur and Vaniambadi (Tamil Nadu), Calcutta (West Bengal) and Agra and Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) 50 PharmaceuticalsThane, Nasik40 Dye and Dye Intermediates Pali,32 Soaps and Detergents10 Paints and varnishes10 Petrochemicals10 Edible oil and vanaspati 7

10 River Pollution River Bhadar, Gujarat 1,200 sari dyeing and printing units in Jetpur: When public protests proved ineffective, the people of downstream town Dhoraji filed a PIL After 14 years, the Gujarat High court ordered closure of Jetpur units till effluent treatment plants were installed. But still little has happened. Rivers Bhavani and Noyyal, Tamil Nadu 800-odd dyeing and bleaching units in Tirupur: Water stored in the Orathapalayam dam on the Noyyal downstream of Tirupur was expected to irrigate 5 per cent of the land in the Noyyal basin but it is now so poor that the farmers have filed a public interest litigation (PIL) against pollution from Tirupur River Yamuna, Delhi 350 million litres of wastewater is released everyday in River Yamuna by small scale industries in Delhi. However according to Pollution Control members, 40 million litres per day is treated.

11 Case study Sponge Iron Industry

12 Major success story in the Indian industrial sector Till 1990s, only 3 plants By 2000-01, there were 22 plants with capacity of 6.97 million tonnes Today, there are 206 sponge iron plants with production capacity of 19 million tonnes Industry: Great!!! Environmentalist: Dangerous for environment

13 Sponge Iron Industry Sponge Iron Industry Map of India

14 Sponge Iron Industry Technology: Where the problem lies! Coal based or Gas based Coal based process is highly polluting whereas gas based is cleaner process About 80 percent of coal based sponge iron manufactured in the world comes form India and about 60% of this production comes from small scale industry.

15 Sponge Iron Industry: Coal based process

16 Sponge Iron Industry Input-Output For a tonne of sponge iron, input is 1.6-1.75 tonnes of iron ore 1.2-1.5 tonnes of coal 0.035-0.05 tonnes of dolomite 1.5-2.0 tonnes of water Output 1.8-2.0 tonnes of carbon dioxide 0.25 tonnes of dust 0.29 tonnes of coal char 0.02 tonnes of sulphur, water vapour

17 Sponge Iron Industry: Cluster of Industry and Air Pollution The air is laden with smoke, The movements of trucks is high, The plants are located adjacent to or right in the middle of a village or villages, The houses in these villages – roofs and walls - are covered with dust, the leaves and forests in the vicinity are black and not green in colour, Layers of soot accumulate on the skin, the eyes experience a burning sensation if long hours are spent in the area, Dumps of char and iron ore scrap lie along the roadside

18 Sponge Iron Industry: Air Emission-Why? Most of the sponge iron units either did not install ESPs, mandatory to control hazardous emissions or do not run it to save money. 1-2 tonnes of dust, if they are equipped with required pollution control equipment, otherwise dust emissions can be as high as 10 tonnes per day.

19 Sponge Iron Industry: Environmental Issues


21 ‘Suspended particulate matter’ contains cadmium, nickel, hexavalent chromium (most dangerous through air and water), arsenic, manganese, and copper which are considered fatal even in small doses. Height of stack:These carcinogenic wastes are emitted from the stacks or the chimneys in the plant. Lower the height of the stack, the more the probability of the emissions settling in and around areas closer to the factory.

22 Sponge Iron Industry: Environmental Issues Water Pollution Many a time the solid waste (flyash, char, iron scrap) is dug into the ground, polluting ground water. The direct disposal of industrial effluents and coal washeries into rivers and streams is a common phenomenon. The other method that is used for disposal is building of waste water ponds in the factory campus. This stored toxic water then seeps into the ground contaminating the ground water. Even a large company like Jindal Steel and Power Ltd dumps fly ash in the nearby school ground, riversides and in forest areas and roadsides.

23 Sponge Iron Industry: Health Impact Damage to the nervous system especially among children due to exposure to lead and mercury Danger of kidney ingestion due to mercury Skin irritation and various other skin diseases Impact on women’s health and reproductive system

24 Sponge Iron Industry: Environmental Issues On health of livestock - It is not just human health that is affected by the pollution; domestic animals, especially livestock such as cattle are also affected. The crop residue and grasses that the cattle feed on, the air that they breathe and the water they drink adversely affects their health. Their milk and meat is contaminated with toxins, which in turn affects the human beings who consume them. “The death of these cattle is very painful because of the pollution from the sponge iron industries. Other domestic animals like dogs have also been affected by the pollution,” say the villagers of Kormunda in Sundergarh, Orissa.

25 Sponge Iron Industry: Environmental Issues Agriculture and crop production - Villages on the periphery of SIIs have their agricultural lands rendered almost unproductive with the increasing accumulation of dust and air emissions on the soil. The quality of the produce has also been affected. “While cooking the rice we can see the amount of dust in the grain as it collects in the vessel,” say women in villages of Raigarh. “The crops and fruits are damaged and yields reduced.”

26 Sponge Iron Industry: Role of Politicians It is the state governments who are today really providing a facilitative and pressure free environment for the sponge iron industries, offering them every subsidy and incentive available. The newly formed states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand have evolved their industrial, water and power policies at the dictates of industrialists. Jharkhand - The maximum number of SIIs mushroomed in Saraikela, which was the constituency of the former chief minister Arjun Singh Munda. In the Giridih district of the state, SIIs are owned by local politicians.

27 Case study Textiles Mill in Pali and Tiruppur

28 Textile mill: Process The Textile industries are very complex in nature as far as varieties of products, process and raw materials are concerned. Brief process: –From raw cotton, yarn is produced. –Weaving and knitting process to produce the cloth. –Bleaching and dyeing operation. Bleaching is a chemical process that removes unwanted colored matter from cloth. During the dyeing operation color is added to increase product value. –Printing and finishing operation.

29 Dyeing Operation Dyeing operation: A number of dyes chemicals and auxiliary chemicals are used to impart desired quality in the fabrics. Wastewater: Highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentration COD and TDS. It can cause environmental problems unless it is properly treated before disposal.

30 Air Pollution Air Pollution: Processing of fibres prior to and during spinning and weaving generates dust, lint etc. which degrades working environment in the industry. Health Problem: Dust may cause respiratory diseases in workers. A chronic lung disease is commonly observed among workers exposed to cotton, flax and hemp dust

31 Water intensive Water requirement by textile sector:  Small and medium unit consumes - Average 175 liters of water for dying one kg of cloth  Large unit – 120 lit/ kg of cloth

32 Textile Sector : Water intensive Water requirement for different purposes

33 Wastewater Generation

34 Textile Mill in Pali Pali is an important district of Rajasthan, having a population of 18,19, 201 people. It It is situated on the banks of river Bandi. Problematic Point: There are around 989 dyeing and printing units, most of which discharge their untreated textile effluents, directly into river Bandi.

35 Textile Mill in Pali According to the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board (RSPCB), these units discharge approximately 34 million litres per day (mld) today. Since 1983, three common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) with a capacity to treat 22.5 mld of industrial effluent have been installed at the cost of Rs 8.13 crore.

36 Textile Mill in Pali Where is the Problem? - Currently less than 45 per cent of the generated effluents are treated before disposal into the river. CETPVolume of effluent treated (mld) CETP I4.65 CETP II5.12 CETP III4.62 Total14.39 Percentage of effluent treated 42.3

37 Textile Mill in Pali Industries are not connected to the treatment plants: –Weak regulatory framework: Currently, there is no system to connect the unregulated industries to the common effluent treatment plant. –According to RSPCB, 193 textile mills are not functional as on date and 151 industrial units are not connected to CETPs. These industries discharge the waste to the drains and to the river.

38 Textile Mill in Pali Poor Efficiency: Even if all the waste is conveyed to the treatment plant, the efficiency of treatment is very poor. Only CETP I working: Analysis of the data provided by CETP officials shows that the BOD, COD and TSS values of the CETP II and CETP III are much higher than the norms set by the RSPCB.

39 Textile Mill in Pali High BOD: BOD values were in the range of 80-110 mg/l in CETP II and 40-110 mg/l in CETP III as against the norm of 30mg/l. High COD: COD values were in the range of 420-480 mg/l in CETP II and 270-450 mg/l in CETP III as against the norm of 250mg/l.

40 Textile Mill in Tiruppur Tiruppur – A textile hub In 1981 – Only 26 bleaching and dyeing units in Tiruppur. In 1991 - increased to 324 In 2001 – number increased to 702 Most of the units are located on the sides of Noyyal river - Convenient to discharge the effluent.

41 Textile mill in Tiruppur Water consumption by the processing units has also increased over time from 4.4 (mld) in 1980 to 40.8 mld in 1990 and to 86 mld in 2000

42 Textile mill in Tiruppur High TDS (3000 to 11000 mg/lit) in - Open wells and bore wells in and around Tiruppur and the downstream stretch of Noyyal river High level of chloride (> 2000 mg/l; in certain areas up to 5000 mg/l) due to industrial pollution (Standard is 1000 mg/l)

43 Textile mill in Tiruppur High concentration of heavy metals in ground water - including zinc, chromium, copper, and cadmium. Available ground water is not suitable for domestic, industrial or irrigation use. Noyyal river – Down stream of river highly polluted and not fit for aquatic organisms

44 Textile mill in Tiruppur: Drinking water problem Due to surface & ground water pollution - Municipality is bringing 32 mld of water from the neighbouring (Bhavani) basin for drinking water supply. More than 90 per cent water brought through tankers from peripheral villages located 25 - 30 km away from Tiruppur. Tiruppur textiles – Spend Rs. 89.10 crore on water purchasing.

45 Textile mill in Tiruppur

46 Case study Small Scale Mining

47 Definition: Mine area, production, level of mechanization, number of people employed or capital investment. Pakistan and United States: Small scale mines are defined in terms of employment which is “mines with less than 50 workers in Pakistan and less than 20 in United States”. Capital investment is another criterion for small- scale mining, varying from specified limits such as $2.5 million in Argentina, R8 million in South Africa, $1 million in Thailand, $30,000 in Zimbabwe

48 Small Scale Mining India specific definition: “Small-scale mines are those where investment may not exceed Rs.6 million and if beneficiation/processing plants are installed the investment may not exceed Rs.10 million”. National Institute of Small Mines (NISM) has adopted a different parameter for SSM, which is all mines producing upto 0.1 million tonne per annum for small.

49 Small Scale Mining Common practice in all countries: It is estimated that it contributes as much as 15–20 per cent of the global value of non- fuel mineral production. Indian mining industry also operates a number of small mines spread throughout the country.

50 Small Scale Mining: No Data No Data: SSM does not fall under the purview of the IBM, so there is no official data on number of SSM in India. The minor minerals fall under the jurisdiction of respective state government, which has a poor track record in maintaining statistics.

51 Small Scale Mining Other than fuel minerals which is reserved for public sector, small- scale mines dominate Indian mining industry Out of 578 coal & lignite mines26% or 150 are SMS Out of 2618 metallic and non-metallic95% or 2523 are SMS Out of 5000 minor minerals mines98% or 4900 are SMS Out of 500 non-formal minor mineral mines 100% or 500 are SMS Total - 8696Total – 8037 (92.4%)

52 Small Scale Mining: Advantages High employment potential (Worldwide, it is estimated that about 13 million people are directly engaged in small-scale mining.) According to a report, the total employment generated by SSM in the country is about 0.5 million. Provides a source of employment in all seasons Extract mineral present in small quantity and in remote areas

53 Small Scale Mining: Disadvantages Unrecognised sector: The sector contributes a significant 10 per cent to the total mineral value produced in the country. The sector is recognised by low salary, poor working condition, no consideration of health and safety, out-dated technology, higher cost of production, poor quality.

54 Small Scale Mining: Poor environmental performance Profit making – No initiative for mineral conservation, environmental protection Destroy vegetation and ecology (small-scale mining of limestone in the Mussoorie Hills resulted in widespread degradation of the Himalayan environment) No monitoring no initiative to meet environmental standard No safety (According to the ILO, the annual fatality rate in the small-scale mines in the country ranges around 15-50 per year)

55 Small Scale Mining Women: Worst sufferers Of the 13 million or so miners engaged in the world, approximately 30 per cent are women. Approximately 6-7 per cent (~20,400) of miners in India are women. Poor working condition for women Lower salary then men No benefit such as paid holidays or maternity leave No access to safety equipment Exploitation by mine owner Due to constant exposure to dust, noise and poor water quality, they also suffer from occupational hazards such as respiratory problems, silicosis, tuberculosis, arthritis, poor vision and deafness

56 Small Scale Mining Should there be ban on small scale mining? Logical as unchecked operations of small-scale mining has destroyed environment and it is often hard to monitor, manage and prevent pollution from these small mines. Devise mechanism: It is an important source of income for millions of people and efforts should be made to integrate them into main stream and devise mechanism for controlling them better. Need proper monitoring by government agencies, IBM, State Pollution Control Board, activist and NGOs.

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