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Pilot-Scale Evaluation of MF-Ozone-BAC Process Train for Removal of Emerging Contaminants Vijay Sundaram Robert W. Emerick, Ph.D., P.E. John P. Enloe,

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Presentation on theme: "Pilot-Scale Evaluation of MF-Ozone-BAC Process Train for Removal of Emerging Contaminants Vijay Sundaram Robert W. Emerick, Ph.D., P.E. John P. Enloe,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pilot-Scale Evaluation of MF-Ozone-BAC Process Train for Removal of Emerging Contaminants Vijay Sundaram Robert W. Emerick, Ph.D., P.E. John P. Enloe, P.E. Stan Shumaker, P.E. Michael Drinkwater, P.E. Stephen Long City of Reno

2 Study Motivation  Indirect Potable Reuse  Aquifer storage and recovery  Effluent Dominated Surface Water Discharge  Narrative toxicity

3 Wastewater Treatment Options Implemented  MF-Ozone  Las Vegas, NV (Lake Discharge)  Ozone-BAC  El Paso, TX (Groundwater Recharge)  MF-RO  West Basin, CA (Groundwater Recharge)  NEWater Project, Singapore (Potable Water Augmentation)  Scottsdale, AZ (Groundwater Recharge)  MF-RO-UV-Peroxide  Orange County, CA (Groundwater Recharge)

4 Process Train Comparisons CategoryMF-Ozone-BACMF-RO-UV-Peroxide EDCs and PPCPsDegradedConcentrated (side stream) Net TOC Rem.Slight Advantage EnergySubstantial Advantage SustainabilitySubstantial Advantage Reject/Side StreamsNoneSome SalinityUnchangedDecreased CorrosivityUnchangedIncreased

5 RSWRF Pilot-Scale Project

6 Membrane Pilot Unit WesTech Membrane Unit (0.01  M)

7 Ozone Pilot Unit Feed and Off-gas Ozone Analyzers Applied Process Tech. HiPOx Ozone Unit Liquid Oxygen Supply In-line Injection

8 BAC Unit ±11 gpm 30 min Empty Bed Contact Time Calgon Filtrasorb 400 Medium WesTech BAC Unit

9 Results and Discussion  Ozone Dosage Optimization / Peroxide Testing  EDC and PPCP Removal  Bromate Formation  GAC to BAC Conversion  Biomass  Population Fingerprint

10 Constituents below Detection Limits  Acetaminophen (< 10 ng/L)  Androstendione (< 10 ng/L)  Caffeine (< 50 ng/L)  Diethylstilbestrol ( < 2 ng/L)  Estradiol (< 2 ng/L)  Estriol (< 1 ng/L)  Ethinyl Estradiol (< 2 ng/L)  Ibuprofen (< 10 ng/L)  Iopromide (< 100 ng/L)  Pentoxifyline (< 1 ng/L)  Progesterone (< 10 ng/L)  Testosterone (< 10 ng/L)  alpha-Estradiol ( < 1 ng/L)

11 Constituents Removed at Ozone Dose of 3 mg/L or more  Oxybenzone  Estrone  Carbamazepine  Diclofenac  Gemfibrozil  Hydrocodone  Methadone  Naproxen  Trimethoprim  4-Nonylphenol monoethoxylates  4-Nonylphenol diethoxylates  Octylphenol

12 Constituents with Inconsistent Results  4-Methylphenol  Phenol  TDCPP  Triphenylphosphate  TCEP  Bisphenol A  Salicylic Acid  Atrazine  Diazepam

13 Removal of EDCs and PPCPs

14 Byproduct Formation

15 Bromate Mitigation: Experimental Design Factors Levels IIIIIIIVVVI O 3 Dose (mg/L)357 H 2 O 2 -O 3 Molar Ratio O 3 Injection Points13 Injection SequenceH 2 O 2 FirstH 2 O 2 Last Ozone Influent: Alkalinity = 92 mg/L pH = 6.9

16 Effect of Peroxide on Bromate Formation

17 Key Points Learned  Ozone Dose >= 5 is recommended for EDC and PPCP removal, but may produce excess bromate  Bromate control possible with peroxide addition, particularly peroxide first with multiple O 3 injection points  Ammonia also plays a major role in preventing bromate formation

18 Steady-State Process Monitoring Constituents RSWRF Pilot - Effluent Type SecondaryMembraneOzoneBAC TOC (mg/L) BDOC (mg/L) Plate Count (cfu/mL) 1.5E+022.8E+05 Bromate (  g/L) <1 3.9<1

19 GAC to BAC Conversion

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23 Next Steps: Pilot-Scale Project Monitoring  Sampling and quantification of contaminants after each treatment process  300+ contaminants of concern  Biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC)  Estrogenic activity (E-Screen)  30+ samples  ±12 gallons/sample  $300,000 (approx. lab cost)

24 Acknowledgements  City of Reno  Southern Nevada Water Authority  Shane Snyder, Ph.D. (Technical Advisor)  University of Nevada, Reno  Edward Kolodziej, Ph.D. (Technical Advisor)  WesTech  Applied Process Technology  Microbial Insights Robert Emerick, Ph.D., P.E Vijay Sundaram Contacts:


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