Presentation on theme: "Bioseparation Chapter 9 Chromatography Dr. Tarek Elbashiti Assoc. Prof. of Biotechnology 1."— Presentation transcript:
Bioseparation Chapter 9 Chromatography Dr. Tarek Elbashiti Assoc. Prof. of Biotechnology 1
Introduction Chromatography is a solute fractionation technique which relies on the dynamic distribution of molecules to be separated between two phases: a stationary (or binding) phase and a mobile (or carrier) phase. In its simplest form, the stationary phase is particulate in nature. The particles are packed within a column in the form of a packed bed. The mobile phase is passed through the column, typically at a fixed velocity. A pulse of sample containing the molecules to be separated is injected into the column along with the mobile phase. The velocities at which these molecules move through the column depend on their respective interactions with the stationary phase.
For instance, if a molecule does not interact with the stationary phase its velocity is almost the same as that of the mobile phase. With molecules that do interact with the stationary phase, the greater the extent of interaction, the slower is the velocity. This mode of chromatographic separation is also called pulse chromatography to distinguish it from step chromatography which is operated differently. Chromatography is used for the separation of different substances: proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, antibiotics, hormones, sugars, etc.
When used for analysis of complex mixtures, chromatography is referred to as analytical chromatography. When used to separate molecules as part of a manufacturing process, it is referred to as preparative chromatography. Some of the applications in biotechnology: 1. Biopharmaceutical production 2. Biopharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 3. Environmental analysis 4. Foods and nutraceuticals production 5. Diagnostics 6. Process monitoring
Chromatography system A chromatographic separation system consists of a column, mobile phase reservoir/s, pump/s, sample injector, detector/s and sometimes a fraction collector. Fig. 9.1 shows a simple chromatographic separation set- up. Different types of columns are used for chromatographic separations (see Fig. 9.2). These are: 1. Packed bed column 2. Packed capillary column 3. Open tubular column 4. Membrane 5. Monolith
Packed bed columns are the most widely used type. Packed capillary and open tubular columns are mainly used for analytical chromatography of synthetic chemicals. The use of membranes in pulse chromatography is limited on account of their small bed heights. However they are increasingly being used in "bind and elute chromatography" (step chromatography) which is operationally similar to adsorption. Monoliths on account of their larger bed heights relative to membranes hold more promise. Their use in analytical separation is on the increase.
The different separation mechanisms used for chromatography are (also see Fig. 9.3): 1. Ion exchange 2. Reverse phase 3. Hydrophobic interaction 4. Affinity 5. Size exclusion The first four mechanisms, have already been discussed in chapter 8. Ion exchange chromatography relies on the differences in electrostatic interaction between the solutes and the stationary phase as basis of separation. Reverse phase chromatography is based on the differences in the extent to which solutes partition into the non-polar stationary phase.
Hydrophobic interaction chromatography separates molecules based on their differences in hydrophobicity. Affinity chromatography relies on the highly specific recognition and binding of target molecules on ligands attached to the stationary phase. Size exclusion chromatography (gel filtration chromatography) is based on the use of inert porous particles as stationary phase and these separate solutes purely on the basis of size. During travel through the chromatographic column, smaller solute molecules find it easier to enter the pores of the chromatographic media (i.e. stationary phase) while the larger solutes are excluded form these pores.
As a result of this, smaller molecules spend a longer time within the column than larger molecules and hence appear in the effluent later. The size-exclusion limit of a gel filtration column specifies the molecular weight range that can be resolved by that particular column. All molecules larger than the size-exclusion limit will travel at the same velocity through the column and appear in the effluent at the same time. This corresponds to the time taken by the solvent molecules to travel through the void volume within the column. With molecules smaller than the size-exclusion limit, the velocities depend on the molecular weight: larger molecules travel faster than the smaller molecules and consequently appear in the effluent earlier.
The mobile phase is continuously pumped through the column during chromatographic separation. The type of pump used depends on the pressure drop across the column. Chromatographic processes are classified into the following categories depending on the pressure requirement: 1. High pressure chromatography, typically greater than 1 MPa 2. Medium pressure chromatography, typically in the range of 0.1 to 1 MPa 3. Low pressure chromatography, typically less than 0.1 MPa
High pressure chromatography is frequently referred to as High Performance Liquid Chromatography or HPLC. Fig. 9.4 shows the picture of an HPLC system. Special pumps which can deliver constant mobile phase flow rates at high pressures are needed in such equipment. Plunger pumps are commonly used in HPLC systems. The pumping requirements are less demanding in medium pressure chromatography. Plunger pumps, diaphragm pumps and peristaltic pumps are frequently used.
Fig. 9.4 shows the picture of an HPLC system
Peristaltic pumps are particularly suitable for handling sterile substances in a contamination free manner. Low pressure chromatography is usually carried out using peristaltic pumps. Where the pressure requirement is low, gravity flow can also be used. The sample containing molecules to be separated is injected into the flowing mobile phase just before it enters the column. A typical sample injector consists of a motorized or manual valve and a sample loop (see Fig. 9.5).
When a sample is not being injected, the mobile phase bypasses the loop as shown in the figure. When the injector is in this mode, the sample can be loaded into the sample loop. When the sample is to required to be injected, the loop is brought on line, i.e. the flow of mobile phase is directed through it. This results in the sample being carried along with the mobile phase into the column.
In a chromatographic separation process, the concentration of the individual components in the effluent stream from the column needs to be monitored. A plot of the concentration of different components as function of time or cumulative effluent volume is called a chromatogram. There are two ways by which these concentrations can be monitored. One way is to collect samples either manually or using an automated sample collector followed by analysis of individual fractions using appropriate chemical or physical methods (e.g. chemical analysis, UV-visible spectrophotometry, refractive index measurement, fluorescence measurement, conductivity measurement, turbidity measurement, immunoassays, etc.). THIS IS REFERRED TO AS OFFLINE ANALYSIS. THIS IS REFERRED TO AS OFFLINE ANALYSIS.
The second and direct way is to use an online (i.e. flow-through) detector for measuring a physical property, which is related to concentration. Properties that could be measured online include UV/visible absorbance, fluorescence, refractive index, conductivity and light scattering. Using appropriate calibrations, the concentration can then easily be determined. In many chromatography systems, the pH of the effluent stream and the system pressure (or sometimes pressure drop across the column) are also monitored.
The monitoring of pH is important in ion exchange chromatography while keeping track of the pressure drop across the column is important from a safety point of view. The pressure drop also yields vital information about the health of the column, i.e. whether it is getting clogged up, and if so, to what extent. The principle of chromatographic separation of a binary solute mixture is shown in Fig. 9.6. The introduction of the sample into the column is referred to as sample injection. In chromatographic separation, the instant of sample injection is referred to as zero time or zero effluent volume.
Depending on the interaction of the components of the binary mixture with the stationary phase, these components move at different velocities through the column. On account of this, these components are segregated into moving bands which appear in the effluent stream as separate peaks at different times. If the concentration of the separated solutes in the effluent is plotted against time/cumulative effluent volume, a chromatogram is obtained. The time at which the maximum concentration of a component in the effluent stream is reached is referred to as its retention time.
Binary chromatography The theory and methods of chromatographic separation discussed so far is based on the use of a single mobile phase. This manner of carrying out chromatographic separation is referred to as isocratic chromatography. Size exclusion separation is carried out in the isocratic mode. For ion exchange, reverse phase, hydrophobic interaction and affinity chromatography, it is frequently convenient to use a combination of two mobile phases for increasing both selectivity and resolution.
This manner of carrying out chromatographic separation using two mobile phases is referred to as binary chromatography. The general approach in binary chromatography is: 1. Use an initial mobile phase which promotes strong interactions between the stationary phase and solutes that need to be retained in the column 2. Wait till unbound or weakly interacting solutes have been removed from the column 3. Switch over to a second mobile phase in an appropriate manner to sequentially release or elute out the bound solutes
The second mobile phase in binary chromatography is selected such that in its presence the bound solutes cannot continue to interact with the stationary phase and are consequently released. The order in which the bound solutes appear in the effluent depends on: 1. The nature of the interactions between the solutes and the stationary phase 2. The properties of the second mobile phase 3. The manner in which the mobile phase is changed Fig. 9.13 shows a typical chromatogram obtained by binary chromatography.
A mixture of four solutes was injected in the pulse, A being non-interacting, B being weakly interacting, C being strongly interacting, and D being very strongly interacting. Solute A appeared in the effluent at about the same retention time as the mobile phase. This was followed by the weakly interacting component B. C and D did not appear in the effluent stream as long as the initial mobile phase was passed through the column. However, when the first mobile phase was replaced by the second mobile phase (in a linear fashion in this particular case) C and D appeared in the effluent in that order.
The thumb-rules for selecting mobile phases in binary chromatography based on different separation mechanisms are listed below: 1. Ion-exchange First mobile phase: low ionic strength Second mobile phase: high ionic strength 2. Affinity First mobile phase: physiological conditions, sometimes higher ionic strengths Second mobile phase: acidic pH 3. Reverse phase First mobile phase: polar Second mobile phase: non-polar
4. Hydrophobic interaction First mobile phase: High concentration of anti- chaotropic salt Second mobile phase: Anti-chaotropic salt free The changeover of mobile phase can be carried out in different ways (also see Fig. 9.14): 1. Step change 2. Linear gradient 3. Non-linear gradient
Hydrodynamic chromatography Hydrodynamic chromatography (or HDC) is similar to size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in that it also does size-based separation. However, unlike SEC which employs a packed bed, HDC uses an open tubular capillary column. Fig. 9.15 shows the principle of hydrodynamic chromatography. The mobile phase flows through the column in a streamline (or laminar) fashion and hence has a parabolic velocity distribution. If a pulse of two different solutes (one larger than the other) is introduced into the column, these will quickly align themselves along different velocity streamlines.
The larger solute on account of its smaller exclusion circle will remain closer to the centerline while the smaller solute on account of its larger exclusion circle will have greater access to the streamlines closer to the wall. As a result of this, the average velocity of the smaller solute will be lower than that of the larger solute. Therefore the larger solute will appear in the column effluent as a peak earlier than the smaller one. Hydrodynamic chromatography is mainly used for separation of large macromolecules and particles