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WATER QUALITY STANDARDS. Part of history making Types of water ? Rain water Storm water River water/ Lake water Ocean water Domestic water Industrial.

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Presentation on theme: "WATER QUALITY STANDARDS. Part of history making Types of water ? Rain water Storm water River water/ Lake water Ocean water Domestic water Industrial."— Presentation transcript:


2 Part of history making

3 Types of water ? Rain water Storm water River water/ Lake water Ocean water Domestic water Industrial water Drinking water Agricultural water Irrigation water Sewage etc.

4 Blue water = good quality water

5 Green water = nutrient-enriched water

6 Brown water comes from swamps & forests

7 Water pollution from poor land use practices

8 Algal bloom – sign of eutrophication

9 Weed infestation of water bodies is driven by nutrient enrichment

10 Water hyacinth in lakes and rivers due to pollution -chokes fish landing sites, e.t.c.

11 Setting the WQ standards Water quality criterion Water quality criterion (water quality guideline) – Needed to support and maintain a designated water use. who sets the guidelines in Kenya? Water Quality Objective Water Quality Objective ( water quality goal)- Needed to support and to protect the designated uses of water at a specific site. Water quality standard Water quality standard – An objective that is recognised in enforceable environmental control laws or regulations of a government.

12 Water quality objectives Water quality objectives are the measures that specify the concentrations of substances permissible for all intended water uses at a specific location on a lake, river, or estuary. The objectives are based on the water quality guidelines for the uses at that location, as well as on public input and socio-economic considerations. The objectives not only protect water users and the environment, but they also promote sustainable water management strategies.

13 Cont.. Water Quality Objectives are intended to provide guidance in making water quality management decisions such as the designation of the surface waters which should not be further degraded. They are often used as the starting point in deriving waste effluent requirements included in Certificates of Approval and other instruments issued to regulate effluent discharges. They are used to assess ambient water quality conditions, assist in assessing spills and monitoring the effectiveness of remedial actions.

14 Advantages of Water Quality Objectives Focuses on solving problems caused by conflicts between the various demands placed on water resources, particularly related to assimilated pollution. Enables an overall limit on levels of contaminants within a water body to be set according to the required uses of the water. It treats industry equitably requiring the use of best available technology for treating hazardous, as well as a number of conventional water pollutants whenever the industry is located.

15 Primary drinking water standards criteria Microorganisms - Giardia lamblia; Virus; Legionella;Turbidity Disinfection Byproducts- bromate, chlorite, trihomethanes; haloacetic acids Disinfectants- chloramines, chlorine and chlorine dioxides Inorganic Chemicals – Arsenic, barium, fluoride, copper, lead, Organic Chemicals – Benzine; Carbon tetrachloride; Dichloromethane Radionuclides – Uranium; Alpha particles; Beta particles and photon emitters

16 Secondary - Drinking water standards (EPA) ContaminantSecondary Standard Aluminum0.05 to 0.2 mg/L Chloride250 mg/L Color15 (color units) Copper1.0 mg/L Corrosivitynoncorrosive Fluoride2.0 mg/L Foaming Agents0.5 mg/L Iron0.3 mg/L Manganese0.05 mg/L Odor3 threshold odor number pH6.5-8.5 Silver0.10 mg/L Sulfate250 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids500 mg/L Zinc5 mg/L

17 Irrigation water quality – salinity and sodium hazards the total concentration of soluble salts (TDS or EC) the relative proportion of sodium to the other cations, the bicarbonate concentration as related to the concentration of calcium and magnesium, and the concentrations of specific elements and compounds. Sodium adsorption ratio is given SAR = [sodium]/[calcium][magnesium]

18 Others standards Domestic Wastewater effluent standards- pH, mercury, cyanide, turbidity, DO level Industrial water standards – Varies with type of goods being manufactured Industrial waster water effluent – Heavy metals Bathing water – swimming pools etc Nb: Standards can be national (WRMA), regional (EAC) or international (WHO, EPA)


20 Recall the causes of water pollution Sewage and organic waste. Chemical pollutants and other toxic materials from industrial processes. Fertilizers and other nutrients that cause eutrophication (a process where water bodies such as lakes become concentrated with nutrients leading to growth of algae and other organisms). Bacteria and other microbiological agents. Silts and other solids that do not easily dissolve in water and which obstruct water flow. Pesticides and other agricultural processes.

21 1. Identify the sources of water pollution (

22 Choosing Water resources – Starting point of WQ interventions Water Quality - How good is it? Affordability - What does it cost? Adequacy – Can it supply enough water? Reliability - How long will it last? Convenience - How far away is it from homesteads?

23 General information of water sources SourcesQualityQuantityAccessibilityReliabilityCost Groundwater Good quality for deep aquifers; poor to fair for shallow aquifers Good with little variation Depends on the best location of well; pumping required unless artesian well Good, maintenance on pump required regularly, must not over pump the aquifer Moderate if need to pump Springs and Seeps Good quality; disinfection recommended after installation of spring protection. Good with little variation for artesian flow springs; variable with seasonal fluctuations likely for gravity flow springs. Storage necessary for community water supply; gravity flow delivery for easy community access. Good for artesian flow and gravity overflow; fair for gravity depression; little maintenance needed after installation. Fairly low cost; with piped system costs will rise. Ponds and Lakes Fair to good in large ponds and lakes; poor to fair in smaller water bodies; treatment generally necessary. Good available quantity; decrease during dry season. Very accessible using intakes; pumping required for delivery system; storage required. Fair to good; need for a good program of operation and maintenance for pumping and treatment systems. Moderate to high because of need to pump and treat water.

24 Information of water sources Streams and Rivers Good for mountain streams; poor for streams in lowland regions; treatment necessary. Moderate: seasonal variation likely; some rivers and streams will dry up in dry season. Generally good; need intake for both gravity flow and piped delivery. Maintenance required for both type systems; much higher for pumped system; riverside well is a good reliable source. Moderate to high depending on method; treatment and pumping expensive. Rain Catchments Fair to poor; disinfection necessary Moderate and variable; supplies unavailable during dry season; storage necessary. Good; cisterns located in yards of users; fair for ground catchments. Must be rain; some maintenance required. Low-moderate for roof catchments; high for ground catchments SourcesQualityQuantityAccessibilityReliabilityCost

25 Community actions to improve WQ Source of pollutionWhat the communities can do Agricultural: from both agriculture practices and livestock rearing. o Managing pastures to maintain vegetative cover and stable soils o Employing conservation farming technique o Minimizing stock access to streams and damage to stream banks Storm water: Generated by rainfall storms o Actively controlling erosion problems Constructing farm dams to encourage water plant growth so that they act as filters for run- off Sewer o Maintaining and operating on-site household wastewater systems (septic tanks and aerated wastewater treatment units) to prevent nutrients getting into streams or groundwater Industrial o regulating industrial activities, as well as controlling diffuse sources, to prevent water pollution o Protecting local wetlands for their role in filtering sediment and nutrients and providing a diversity of wildlife habitat o Reusing effluent where possible

26 2. Embrace IWRM as the best management tool 1992 Dublin principles 1.Fresh water is finite and vulnerable resource 2.Water resource planning, development and management should involve all stakeholders 3.Women play a central role in water affairs 4.Water has an economic value and should be viewed as an economic good

27 IWRM concept application in Kenya WRMA recognises the stakeholder participation as key in restoring the catchment- Catchment Management Strategy MWI has developed the national IWRM plan The plan has taken aspects of sustainability into consideration IWRM level of implementation is still very low in Kenya

28 IWRM benefits Progress in pollution control and achievements in the programme can only be quantitatively recognised through water quality monitoring WRMA has adopted the principles of IWRM in pollution control, several benefits can be realised.

29 IWRM benefits cont; protecting catchment areas, pollution control and environmental flows. lead to the water security of the world’s poor and the unserved being assured be a stimulus to the sector to push for recycling, reuse and waste reduction will improve the opportunity for introduction of sustainable sanitation solutions

30 3. Holistic Catchment management Q(m 3 /s) P (mm) Area Length Slope Forests Farms Industries Dwelling houses Rivers Lakes Reservoirs Wildlife Soil types Geology Climate Divide Rainfall station Gauging station Y X Z

31 4. ECOSAN: Use of new technology WATER QUALITY


33 ECOSAN and the linkage to IWRM

34 5. Inter/intra sectoral coordination WRMA NEMA KEBS Ministries International agencies Private sector

35 Need for institutional Coordination

36 6. Improvement on; 1. Strong Information Baseline Poor pollution monitoring by effluent dischargers 2. Create high Compliance to Regulations mechanisms Low priority by industry on wastewater treatment Ignorance on existing regulations Historically weak enforcement 3. Develop adequate Infrastructure Inadequate capacity of treatment plants Frequent sewerage bursts / sewer spills Poor management of dumping sites Poor disposal of wastes especially in informal settlements Storm water drainage Expansion of Juakali Industry

37 WRMA initiatives on Effluent Dischargers 1.To develop an Effluent Discharge Control Plan (EDCP). 2.To have a valid effluent discharge permit before discharging into the water resources. 3.To maintain records of effluent discharge in terms of quantity and quality. 4.To install a controlling and measuring device to ensure water abstracted or effluent discharged is accurately measured 5.WRMA monitors resource & enforces compliance to WRM Rules

38 Observations/recommedations

39 Carry out Pollution assessment & Monitoring Extent of industrial, domestic, agricultural etc wastes How many permits issued and are standards adhered to Are there legislation to prevent littering What are the distribution of land use in the catchments What is the population growth rate What is the attitude of local people towards pollution Are there water borne diseases Are there changes in animal and plant communities with time.. Are polluters punished

40 Strengthen the Guiding Principles for Water Pollution Control Prevent pollution rather than treating symptoms of pollution Use the precautionary principle Apply the Polluter Pays Principle Apply realistic standards and regulations Balance economic and regulatory instruments Apply water pollution control at the lowest appropriate level Establish mechanisms for cross -sectoral integration

41 Guiding Principles cont; Encourage participatory approaches with involvement of all relevant stakeholders Give open access to information on water pollution Promote international cooperation on water pollution control


43 Reasons for treatment 1.Remove smells and odors, 2.Dissolved gases (Ammonia, hydrogen sulphide) 3.Kill germs, pathogens, bacteria and viruses 4.Water hardness 5.Portable and safe water

44 Where do we start? Water samples – from sources (borehole) Water examination Water analysis – Water laboratory Re-samplying every three months Checking on transmission lines for infiltration of sewage water

45 Methods for purification Simplest is boiling Filtration Chlorination Ozone UV treatment Water guard (Sodium hypo chlorite) Distillation

46 Filters Sand filters for large communities Gravity filters for small communities Domestic household filters Filter cartridges ( for many types of ions) Activated carbon or charcoal filters Fluoride filters – CDN as a leader Reverse osmosis – More advanced

47 The working principles of some specific filters 1.Ozone filters – Through oxidation process, all organic, inorganic and biological substances are destroyed 2.Steam distillation – Natural methods which is able to remove Biological Entities, Heavy Metals, Organic Chemicals, Inorganic Chemicals & Radioactive Material 3.Carbon filters (Charcoal) – A good media for a wide range of contaminant like chlorine, pesticides, herbicides and inorganic materials 4.Far Infrared Light (FIR) - Very suitable for toxin removal 5.Ultraviolet Light – Very cheap to use – Deactivates the DNA of bacteria, virus and other pathogens

48 Working principles Cont; 6. The ceramic water filters – Very cheap and affordable- removes dirt, microbes, virus and bacteria 7. CDN Fluoride filters- Single and combined “These two filters are cheap and wananchi friendly”

49 Sand filters

50 UV filters

51 Ceramic water filters

52 CDN Single and combined Fluoride filters

53 Observations and conclusions 1.Pollution Prevention should Prevails 2.Water sources like Wells or boreholes should be properly protected and maintained 3.For water supply check pipes and pumps regularly and seal pipe joints properly 4.Investigate any change in water quality at the earliest possible time 5.Any change in land use should warrant a water analysis

54 Observations That cheap and affordable WQ filters are can be available. The government through its appropriate organs and mechanism should create an enabling environment for the production and distribution of these filters to the vulnerable communities Education and training on WASH should be accelerated and taken down to the communities Universities, NGO’s, CDN and others should continue carrying out research on cheaper and affordable filters made from local material Treat NOT ONLY the drinking water but also the wastewater


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