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1 CSP and the Energy Water Nexus – Greg Bartlett.

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1 1 CSP and the Energy Water Nexus – Greg Bartlett

2 2 Summary Solar thermal plants need to be sited properly  Is there adequate groundwater?  Can a previous/planned usage be “retired?  Is reclaimed water available? Case Study: Hualapai Valley Solar Project Yes – more than 15 million AF in remote sub-basin Yes – approved 100-year residential usage Yes – reclaimed water from City of Kingman Result – net reduction in groundwater impact Improperly sited projects are not viable projects

3 HUALAPAI VALLEY SOLAR Who we are CONFIDENTIAL 3

4 4 Hualapai Valley Solar Project 340 MW parabolic trough project (solar thermal) 7+ hours of thermal energy storage Private land near Kingman AZ (4,000+ acres) State of the art evaporative cooling system Two sources of cooling water  Groundwater  Effluent water from City WWTP Start of operation: 2014

5 555 Parabolic troughs

6 666 Aerial view of HVS Project

7 777 HVS power block

8 Aerial photo of the Hilltop WWTP 8

9 THE WATER CHALLENGE Why we are here CONFIDENTIAL 9

10 10 Abundant fuel

11 11 Solar technologies Solar Trough is best for utility scale  Proven, reliable steam turbine  Thermal energy storage used to match load  Financeable and operating today at scale Solar Tower, Solar Chimney, CPV, Stirling  Not yet financeable or operating at scale PV  Violent intermittency  Regional grid and utilities cannot support scale

12 12 Alternatives to Water Cooling Air Cooling  Large towers, large fans, large electricity usage  Higher capital cost: 2-3x  Efficiency drops significantly on hot days: up to 40%  LCOE: +7-9% Hybrid Cooling  Highest cost, to build both systems (water+air)  Switch between both, based on air temperature  Solar plants generate mostly on hot days, thus a strong operational bias against air cooling

13 13 Market realities today Why are there no Air / Hybrid Cooling solar thermal plants in the world today?  Not competitive – solar is already at a premium; the 7- 9% additional LCOE would be passed on to utility ratepayers  Air (and thus Hybrid) Cooling are not cost effective, except for 24/7 power plants Thus, banks see these alternatives as unacceptable risks…

14 14 Policy considerations Today, Water Cooling is needed  The only economical solution today to meet RPS Need to build some solar thermal plants now Solar plants should be sited to:  …avoid endangered aquifers  …retire previous/planned water use  …allow use of reclaimed water Siting is the single most overlooked and most important criterion; not all projects are viable.

15 15 Policy should cover all uses Water UserAnnual Water Usage (total) Annual Water Usage (per acre) Family of 5 on 1/4 acre1 AF4.0 AF 18-Hole Public Golf Course600 AF5.0 AF Hualapai Valley Solar2,400 AF0.6 AF (1) Spring Hill Gas Power Plant4,000 AF40.0 AF (2) Copper Mine5,500 AF1.6 AF Catalyst Paper Mill11,862 AF118.6 AF (2) Alfalfa Farm26,400 AF5.5 AF Navajo Coal Power Plant27,200 AF15.5 (1)ADWR issued a 100-Year Letter of Adequacy to a planned residential development that included portions of the HVS site for 1.2 AF per acre per year. (2) Actual acreage not known, estimated for comparison purposes to be 100 acres.

16 THE HVS APPROACH The developer should site and design responsibly CONFIDENTIAL 16

17 17 Reuse and reduce usage Reuse – plans to use reclaimed water Reduce – evaluating other technologies and techniques to reduce net water usage  Electrocoagulation  Centrifugal filtration  Recycling, capture of rainwater, etc. This strategy meets the goals of the Arizona Blue Ribbon Panel on Water Use (Dept. of Water Resources, Dept. of Environmental Quality, Corporation Commission)

18 EFFLUENT Treated wastewater is reclaimed water, ready to use again CONFIDENTIAL 18

19 19 What is effluent? Wastewater that is treated & suitable for reuse Arizona classes of reclaimed water:  Class B+ reclaimed water – wastewater that has undergone secondary treatment, nitrogen removal treatment, and disinfection  Class A+ reclaimed water – additional filtration More than 190,000 AF of effluent is being generated annually in Arizona

20 20 Class A+ allowed uses

21 21 Class B+ allowed uses

22 22 Effluent users in Arizona Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant SCA Tissues Arizona Snowbowl Ski Resort (proposed) Various golf courses  Many counties require new courses to use effluent City of Flagstaff  2,300 AFY of effluent in use by 10 schools, 8 parks, 2 cemeteries, 3 golf courses and a playing field at NAU

23 HVS AND EFFLUENT Plans to use reclaimed water to generate solar electricity CONFIDENTIAL 23

24 The Vision CONFIDENTIAL 24

25 Effluent cooling advantages Relatively constant water quality  Groundwater quality can change over time Preserves water currently stored in aquifer Reuses an otherwise wasted resource Wastewater may be easier to treat Consistent with AZ Blue Ribbon Panel Palo Verde Plant – operational precedent 25

26 Effluent cooling challenges Higher capital & operating costs Supply does not match demand  Supply is relatively constant year-round, while demand for cooling water is greatest in summer  Requires storage to buffer flows Pipeline  ROW/easements required for length of pipe  Expands the Project’s environmental footprint Potential risk of contaminating cooling water 26

27 27 City of Kingman Upgrading existing Hilltop WWTP (2011) Treats more than 1.4 MGD today Designed to expand to 5 MGD  All new growth will be processed at Hilltop  North Kingman (10,000 homes) currently using septic Today, the effluent is evaporating in ponds No effluent purchaser prior to HVS Located 22 miles due south of HVS site

28 28 Chronology Letter of Intent with Kingman – Jun 09 Binding MOU – Dec 09 New City Policy on Sale of Effluent  Approved by Kingman City Council – Mar 10 First draft of Purchase Agreement – Jun 10 Currently negotiating final purchase contract

29 29 Options considered Pipeline – construct a pipeline, pumping stations, and storage facilities at and/or between WWTP and HVS site Recharge – inject effluent into the aquifer near WWTP, and withdraw using groundwater wells at HVS site Contracted Delivery – contract with a third party to deliver effluent to the HVS site, allowing delivery of effluent to other users Trade – deliver effluent to other user(s), thus permitting them to decrease their demand on the Kingman sub- basin, and withdraw using groundwater wells at HVS site

30 HVS water sources – if online today 30

31 SUMMARY CSP and the Energy Water Nexus CONFIDENTIAL 31

32 32 Summary Solar thermal plants need to be sited properly  Is there adequate groundwater?  Can a previous/planned usage be “retired?  Is reclaimed water available? Case Study: Hualapai Valley Solar Project Yes – more than 15 million AF in remote sub-basin Yes – approved 100-year residential usage Yes – reclaimed water from City of Kingman Result – net reduction in groundwater impact Improperly sited projects are not viable projects

33 33 Contact Information Hualapai Valley Solar Project Project Director Mohave Sun Power LLC 85 Hamilton Street Cambridge, MA mobile Skype address: gjbartlett Greg Bartlett


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