Suspended growth systems So far, we have studied systems where treatment is effected by bacteria, and other organisms, which are attached to a solid medium, i.e. soil, rocks, etc. There are also systems where the microbial growth occurs in suspension. The bacteria then aggregate into flocs, which are barely visible to the naked eye, but each consists of millions of bacteria and often protozoa attached to the floc. Systems range from the simple facultative lagoon or pond, with no aeration, to aerated ponds and to sophisticated activated sludge systems, where the biomass is separated from the effluent and recycled to treatment and excess production treated separately. The simple lagoon or pond systems purify the water quite well, but since there is no provision to separate the biomass production, the effluent is quite turbid and still contains much organic material, but stabilized to a non-smelling and not rapidly degrading form.
Facultative lagoons Facultative lagoons or stabilization ponds use only natural phenomena and almost no mechanical action. Oxygenation for bacterial oxidation of organics comes from photosynthesis by algae and a bit from wind. CO 2 released by bacteria is used by the algae. Excess biomass and other settleables are treated by anaerobic bacteria at the bottom.
Design approaches to pond treatment systems Ponds usually require lengthy treatment periods, weeks for facultative systems and days for aerated systems. Although facultative systems have very little mixing other than inflow, gas bubbles and wind effects, the long retention periods ensures some homogeneity except with respect to depth, as there is much stratification. As in any mixed system, the contents have the same concentration as the overflow. This means that the organisms in the pond continuously experience a low level of substrate to feed on, which slows down the treatment considerably, as the typical first-order reactions are directly proportional to the BOD. Therefore, significant improvement in treatment rate can be achieved by approaching a channel (tube) flow, or using multiple ponds. Multiple pond system analysis can be performed by assuming that each is a completely mixed system, operating on a first-order degradation and a mass balance around each provides one equation. Intermediate values can be eliminated as of no interest, so the solution will provide final effluent quality for given retention times, or more importantly, retention times to achieve a necessary effluent quality.
Nitrogen removal Nitrification ( Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter ) NH 3 + O 2 NO 2 - NO 3 - Denitrification NO 3 - + organics CO 2 + N 2 Process adaptations AnoxicAerobic Air
Phosphate removal BNR plants Discarding phosphate anaerobically Luxury aerobic uptake of P in aerobic stage Process adaptations for N and P removal AnaerobicAnoxicAerobic Air Wastewater
Excess biomass disposal Production Separation Further biological treatment – (an)aerobic Dewatering Drying – solar or gas heated Disposal/ beneficial use – soil amender/fertilizer or fuel The cost of biomass disposal amount to about half the cost of wastewater treatment. Aeration, if used, almost up to half of the rest of the cost. If no aeration, the capital cost, including the cost of land, could be very high.
How are living beings classified? Linnaeus Linnaeus (1735) 2 kingdoms Haeckel Haeckel (1866) 3 kingdoms Chatton Chatton (1925) 2 groups Copeland Copeland (1938) 4 kingdoms Whittaker Whittaker (1969) 5 kingdoms Woese Woese (1977,1990) 3 domains Animalia Eukaryote Animalia Eukarya VegetabiliaPlantae Protoctista Fungi Protista (not treated) Protista ProcaryoteMonera Archaea Bacteria Historic development of classification
How are living beings classified? Two super-.kingdoms Three domains Six kingdoms Mineralia non-life Biota/ Vitae life Acytota / Aphanobionta (Viruses, Viroids, Prions ?,...) non-cellular life Cytota cellular life Prokaryota / Procarya Prokaryota / Procarya (Monera)Monera BacteriaEubacteria ArchaeaArchaebacteria Eukaryota / Eucarya Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia