Presentation on theme: "SHRIMP FARMING IN SALINE GROUNDWATER IN ARIZONA, USA Kevin Fitzsimmons University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona."— Presentation transcript:
SHRIMP FARMING IN SALINE GROUNDWATER IN ARIZONA, USA Kevin Fitzsimmons University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona
ABSTRACT n Environmental restrictions on shrimp aquaculture. n Inland culture avoids problems. n Low salinities will support growout. n Problem areas with aquaculture. n Reuse of effluent for field crops. n Sustainable and profitable?
INTRODUCTION Environmental Constraints n Loss of mangroves and other coastal vegetation. n Effluents and nutrient enrichment n Impacts (real and imagined) on wild shrimp and other species (diseases, exotic species, genetic contamination). n Changes in estuarine flow patterns.
INTRODUCTION Low salinity inland culture n Florida, Harbor Branch Oceanographic n Mexico, Colima; Aquagranjas n Thailand, multiple n India, Andhra Pradesh n Texas, Texas A&M n Arizona, Gila Bend and Aztec
INTRODUCTION Source water n Low (1-2 ppt or 1000 -2000 ppm TDS). n Med (3-5 ppt or 3000 - 5000 ppm TDS) n Low can be used on conventional crops. n Medium salinity effluent constitutes a disposal problem. n Medium salinity effluent can be used for algae culture or halophyte crops.
INTRODUCTION Reuse of low salinity (1-2 ppt) effluent water n Has been used for olive trees, sorgum, and cotton. n Could be used for sugar beets, asparagus and dates.
INTRODUCTION Reuse of medium salinity (3-5 ppt) effluent water n Halophyte agriculture. n Seaweed culture. n Bivalve culture.
INTRODUCTION Halophytes n Many families of plants have halophytic representatives. n Grasses, bushes, trees n Many are from arid regions n Native species are usually available n Can be used for forage, biomass, landscaping, and dust control
RESULTS Gila Bend, Low salinity n Stocking Litopenaeus vannamei –35 shrimp/m2 @ 0.4 g n Feed - Rangen n Water exchange: 10-15% n Aeration –Paddlewheels –Diffusers
RESULTS Gila Bend, Low salinity n Survival 47% n Harvest after 85 days, @ 19 g n Yield – 4,000 kg/ha –10 ha of ponds
RESULTS Gila Bend, Low salinity n Algae bloom –more characteristic of freshwater –nutritional value for shrimp needs to be studied n Problems –Hemocytic enteritis –Gill fouling
RESULTS Gila Bend Typical algae counts in August 1998 n Cyanophyta (Blue-Green algae) –Gomphosphaeria (10 4 cells/ml) –Lyngbya (10 4 cells/ml) –Microcystis (10 4 - 10 6 cells/ml) –Merismopedia (10 4 - 10 5 cells/ml)
RESULTS Gila Bend Typical algae counts in August 1998 n Chlorophyta (Green algae) –Chlorella (10 4 - 10 5 cells/ml) –Coelastrum (10 4 cells/ml) –Pediastrum (10 3 cells/ml) –Scenedesmus (10 4 cells/ml)
RESULTS Gila Bend Typical algae counts in August 1998 n Diatoma (Diatoms) –Gomphonema (10 4 cells/ml) –Navicula (10 3 cells/ml) –Nitzchia (10 3 -10 4 cells/ml) –Synedra (10 2 cells/ml)
RESULTS Aztec, Medium salinity n Stocking L. vannamei, L.. stylirostris –5 to 10 shrimp/m2 @ PL 20 n Feed - Rangen n Water exchange: limited n Aeration:none
RESULTS Aztec, Medium salinity n Survival L. vannamei, L. stylirostris –0 to 30% n 3 grams per week at one point n Harvest after 120 days, @ 10 -20 g n Yield –0 to 1,000 kg/ha –40 ha of ponds
Conclusions n Shrimp can be produced in low salinity groundwater. n Commercial quantities can be produced. n Low salinity effluent waters can be used for conventional field crops. n Medium salinity effluent can be used for halophyte crops.
Conclusions n Sustainability will not be demonstrated until salt levels in soils are tested after several years of irrigation. n Need to determine manipulation of algae species.
Conclusions n Markets are prepared to pay a premium for fresh, locally grown shrimp. n Profitability will be determined if more crop cycles can be completed without significant losses due to disease or other environmental conditions.
Additional information n Websites –http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua –http://www.desertsweetshrimp.com –http://www.shrimp.ga.com –http://www.sciam.com/1998/0898issue