Presentation on theme: "BIOREMEDIATION APPLICATION FOR INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1BIOREMEDIATION APPLICATION FOR INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT BYDR. SEEMA JILANIASSOCIATE PROFESSORTEXTILE INSTITUTE OF PAKISTAN
2Contents Introduction Concern Study objectives & benefits Industrial Contaminants & their ImpactTreatment TechnologiesBioremediation TechnologyBioremediation Principles & MechanismFactors Influencing BioremediationAdvantages & Disadvantages of BioremediationConclusions
3IntroductionIncreased urbanization and industrialization has given rise to serious water pollution and environmental problems.Discharge of industrial effluent as well as chemical spills, domestic sewage, and pesticides use are the main cause of environmental pollution.Manufacturing & processing industries that have led to serious environmental contamination includes tanneries, fertilizers, textile, refineries, chemicals, vegetable oils, paper and pulp, sugar and food industries.Cont…….
4IntroductionKarachi, a hub of industrial activity, houses seven major industrial estates in Korangi, Landhi, SITE, Federal B Area, North Karachi, Superhighway and Port Qasim.At present, Karachi coastal region has become a dumping ground of hazardous waste, receiving huge quantities of untreated domestic & industrial wastewater through Lyari & Malir Rivers.Since most industries have no treatment facility or have grossly inadequate arrangements.Cont……..
5IntroductionAccelerated rate of fresh water contamination in the city is divulging the problem of water scarcity.Continued practice will ultimately threatens fresh water availability and food security for future as well as health hazards and economic losses.With new regulations and a greater environmental concern, industrial effluent treatment need especial attention.
6Current ConcernContaminated water is responsible for over 12 million deaths per year world over.More than 40% hospital beds in Pakistan are occupied by patients with water related diseases.According to Economic Survey of Pakistan , economic losses due to water pollution in the country are estimated at Rs billion per year.While National Drinking Water Policy Document 2009 mentions the same at about Rs.112 billion per year, over Rs.300 million a day, in terms of health costs and lost earnings.
7Water Pollution in Karachi Karachi, population over 18 million discharged around 446 MGD of wastewater.About 70% untreated wastewater discharged into the Arabian sea.All most all chemical waste are dumped untreated into storm-drains, open nallahs or in the lyari and malir rivers which ultimately fall into the Arabian Sea.The coastal zone, extended up to 135 Km, is exposed to heavy pollution load of both domestic and industrial origin.Cont……
8Water Pollution in Karachi In Karachi, over 120 million gallons of wastewater containing hazardous chemicals (produced by 4,000 industrial units, 2,000 legal and the same number of illegal industries) is being discharged into the sea without proper treatment.Preventing water pollution is critically important to ensure sustainability of the locale’s development.
9Aim & ObjectivesTo provide an overview of bioremediation technique an environmentally sound, economical and sustainable technique for industrial effluent treatment.To discuss the importance of microorganisms and the essential factors required for industrial effluent treatment.Overall aim is to provide scientific information about remediation of hazardous waste in soil and water environments.
10BenefitsThe information would be valuable to scientists who are trying to develop method for the treatment of toxic compounds.The study would be helpful in improving the design and operation of biomechanical treatment system used for degradation of toxic compounds.Further, the study may contribute to the improvement of public health, sanitation, soil integrity and the conservation of fresh water resources.
11Wastewater Contaminants Contaminants of concern in wastewater treatmentsuspended solidsbiodegradable organicspathogensnutrientspriority pollutants(EPA designated toxics)refractory organics(organics that don’t biodegrade)heavy metalsdissolved inorganics
12Contaminants ImpactToxicants such as detergents, fertilizers, metals, pesticides and many other chemicals lead to progressive deterioration of environmental quality.These chemical compounds may be toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and may be bioaccumulated or biomagnified by the biota.Hazardous compounds persists because environmental conditions are not appropriate for the microbial activity that results in biochemical degradation.
13Contaminants Impact Contaminants Impacts on the environment suspended solids lead to sludge deposition and anaerobic conditionsbiodegradable lead to oxygen depletion andorganics odors problempathogens transmission of communicable diseasesnutrients (N,P) causes eutrophication, oxygen depletion and toxicity problemCont…………
14Contaminants Impact Contaminants Impacts on the environment non-biodegradable resist conventional treatmentOrganics (e.g. detergents, phenols, pesticides).heavy metals Consequences for disposal and reuse of sludge & wastewater.dissolved agricultural crop productioninorganics as well as protein productionin aquaculture (fish/duckweed)might reduced.
15Treatment ImportanceEfficient and reliable method for industrial effluent treatment are neededto prevent water pollutionto conserve essential natural resourceto protect human health and ecosystemto comply with environmental protection regulations.
16Treatment OptionsVarious conventional methods used for decontamination of toxic wastes are:Activated carbon adsorptionChemical oxidizationIncinerationDirect photolysisBiological degradation (Bioremediation)
17Bioremediation Technology Of all the technologies that have been investigated, bioremediation has been found to be the most cost effective and environmental friendly treatment option for many environmental pollutants.Bioremediation is a pollution control technology that uses biological systems to catalyze the degradation or transformation of various toxic chemicals to less harmful forms.
18Bioremediation Technology Bioreactors technologically are the most sophisticated category of environmental bioremediation.Bioreactors offer a much faster means of waste biodegradation than land treatment and more control over reaction conditions and effluent quality than simple biofilters.
19Major PlayersIn bioremediation, microorganisms are used to destroy or immobilize waste materials.Microorganisms include:Bacteria (aerobic and anaerobic)FungiAlgaeActinomycetes (filamentous bacteria).
20Bioremediation Principle Bioremediation is based on the idea that organisms are capable to uptake things from the environment and use it as food to enhance their growth and metabolism.With this unique characteristic lay the fundamental principle of bioremediation, to use microorganism to take in contaminated substances from the environment or convert it to a nontoxic form.
21Bioremediation Process 1. Microbes releases enzyme to break down the contaminantinto digestible pieces.2. The contaminant of organic substances is ingest anddigest as food along with other energy source by the cell.GOALDegrade organic substances that are hazardous to living organisms and convert the organic contaminants into inert products.
22How does bioremediation work ? Chemicals present at contaminated sites become part of the metabolic process. For example,Hydrocarbon oxidizing organisms develop on oil films.Microbes attach to insoluble oil droplets and begin the process of decomposition.Various bacteria produce surfactants that aid in the biodegradation of fuels. The surfactant helps to decrease the surface tension and disperse the oil to allow maximum access to biodegrading microorganisms.
23How does bioremediation work? Some time toxic intermediates form during microbial transformationsBiodegradation involves the breakdown of organic compounds either through biotransformation into less complex metabolites or through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H2O, CO2 or CH4.e.g. formation of vinylchloride during degradation of perchlorethylene.
24Heavy Metal TreatmentThe recovery of metals by microbes or microbial products is more advanced.Fungi produce several extracellular products which can complex or precipitate heavy metals.For example, many fungi and yeast release high affinity Fe-binding compounds that chelate iron.The Fe3+ chelates which are formed outside the cell wall are taken up into the cell.In Saccharomyces cerevisiae removal of metals is done by their precipitation as sulphides e.g. Cu2+ is precipitated as CuS.The best-known example of microbial metal metabolism is the mining microbe Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.This bacterium and other related species derive energy by utilizing metallic sulfides.
25Factors Influencing Bioremediation For bioremediation of harmful chemicals following factorsare required to be monitored in the effluent:Required microorganismTemperaturepH levelDissolved oxygen concentrationInorganic nutrient.These conditions allow microbes to grow and multiply—and eat morechemicals. When conditions are not right, microbes grow too slowly or die or they can create more harmful chemicals.
26Advantages of Bioremediation Ecologically sound, a natural processTarget chemicals are detoxifiedEconomicalOn-site elimination of waste
27Disadvantages of Bioremediation Research is neededSlow processToxic by-products are produced
28ConclusionsBioremediation continues to be the favored approach for processing biological wastes.Bioremediation utilizes microbes such as bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, and some plants.Three categories of bioremediation techniques have been identified: in situ land treatment (treatment of contaminated material on site), biofiltration, and bioreactors.Bioremediation is highly efficient system, if proper conditions are maintained example pH, temperature, DO, nutrients.Bioremediation is cost-efficient and helps chemical and physical methods of managing wastes and environmental pollutants.
29Please take care of our environment Good quality and quantity of freshwater is a key to sustainable socio-economic developmentPlease take care of our environment