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第 章 14 團體協商與勞資關係 我該了解什麼? 1. 指出工會與勞工關係的定義,並說明它們在組織中的角 色。 2. 指出管理階層、工會、社會對勞工關係應有的目標。 3. 簡述與勞工關係有關的法律規範。 4. 描述工會組織程序。 5. 說明勞資雙方如何進行協商。 6. 簡述執行勞資契約的實務做法。 7.

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Presentation on theme: "第 章 14 團體協商與勞資關係 我該了解什麼? 1. 指出工會與勞工關係的定義,並說明它們在組織中的角 色。 2. 指出管理階層、工會、社會對勞工關係應有的目標。 3. 簡述與勞工關係有關的法律規範。 4. 描述工會組織程序。 5. 說明勞資雙方如何進行協商。 6. 簡述執行勞資契約的實務做法。 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 第 章 14 團體協商與勞資關係 我該了解什麼? 1. 指出工會與勞工關係的定義,並說明它們在組織中的角 色。 2. 指出管理階層、工會、社會對勞工關係應有的目標。 3. 簡述與勞工關係有關的法律規範。 4. 描述工會組織程序。 5. 說明勞資雙方如何進行協商。 6. 簡述執行勞資契約的實務做法。 7. 指出促進勞資關係的互惠做法。

2 Individual Bargaining Employment at will – unwritten contract created when employee agrees to work, but no agreement exists as to how long parties expect employment to last

3 Individual Bargaining (Continued) Seniority means little Concept of supply and demand Employment at will

4 工會角色 勞工可單槍匹馬地與業者交涉工作條件,亦可組成工會, 集體表達勞方所需並代為解決勞資爭議。 工會是為維護勞方利益、並解決勞資爭議而組成的組織。 工會的產生,其實來自勞資雙方不可避免的利害衝突。 團體協商時,勞資雙方即有機會互聽心聲、找出對新契約 內容共識,並以更有系統的方式解決勞資爭端。 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 of 31

5 勞工關係的角色 勞工關係是一個強調勞資互動技巧的管理學門。如主 管與工會領袖如何促進有效勞資合作、減少成本過高 的勞資衝突(如罷工),以及找出雙贏的解決模式等。 勞工關係課程談及的決策,可大別為以下三個層次: 勞工關係策略 合約協商 合約履行 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 of 31

6 Unions Today Fall of Big Labor since 1970s has been dramatic Unionized share of private sector workforce is 9 percent

7 Percentage of the Private Workforce That is Unionized Year Percentage of Workforce

8 The Union Movement Today and Tomorrow Declining membership Laws have taken over much of the union ’ s traditional role as the workers ’ protector. Automation, globalization and technology have reduced jobs in unionized manufacturing sectors. Unions have fail to organize new plants. Unions have been more successful in organizing workers in the public sector. Management has become better at resisting union organizing efforts

9 Why Do Workers Organize? Solidarity To get their fair share of the pie. Improved wages, hours, working conditions, and benefits To protect themselves from management whims. Conditions favoring employee organization Low morale Fear of job loss Arbitrary management actions

10 全國性與國際性工會 多數工會成員均隸屬於某全國性或國際性工會。 同業工會成員均具特殊技術或是屬於特定職業類別: 國際電工同業公會 美國聯合木匠同業工會 產業工會的會員,係因均在某個產業服務而結緣: 美國聯合鋼鐵工人工會 美國通訊工人工會 在美國,絕大多數全國性工會均隸屬美國勞工聯合會暨產 業組織協會。 本協會性質非屬一般工會,而係為促進全國各類工會會員 權益之國家級組織 。 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 of 31

11 美國十大工會 5 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 地方性工會 多數全國性工會均係由地方性工會組成。 地方性工會成員來源,因工會類型而異: 產業工會 同業工會 通常地方性工會自行選舉幹部 ( 如正副會長或財務長 )。 處理協商案件時,全國性工會將提供支援協助給地方性 工會。 個人會員可能經由不同管道參與地方性工會: 工會執行秘書 6 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 工會會員人數的變遷 美國工會會員數在 1950 年代達到高峰。在那之後,工會 會員比例即開始下降。 目前全美勞工中,加入工會人數約為全體勞工數的 14% ;其中任職於私人企業勞工參與工會比例則為 9% 。 造成勞工參與工會比例下降的原因很多: 經濟結構改變 晚近婦女及青少年工作機會增機加 許多高度成長產業位於美國南方 管理階層努力防止員工組成工會 商業競爭 政府制定相關規範 7 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 年間美國工會 受薪勞工佔全體會員百分比 8 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 公家機關工會 公家機關工會地位仍極為強勢且穩固。 超過三分之一公務員隸屬於工會;受團體協商結果保 護的公務員數則更大於此。 相關法律規範支持為造成此一情況的重要原因之一: 號總統令 公務員所享勞工權益和非公務員並不完全一致。如多 數公務員均未享有合法罷工權。 9 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 工會對公司績效表現的影響 負面影響: 工會透過勞資合約限制業者增加員工工作量,將使組 織生產力無法提昇 罷工抗爭與工作停擺等工會活動,更會降低組織貨品 實際產量 正面效應: 降低員工離職率 避免員工彼此惡性競爭 10 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 勞資立場與社會理想分析 管理階層立場: 成本控制 增進生產力 勞動工會立場: 使工會會員享有堪稱滿意的薪資與工作條件 在影響勞工權益事項上提出工會意見 同工同酬 工會通常極為重視勞資合約中代扣工會會費、工會會員資格、或 與會員捐助相關條款內容: 封閉制 工會制 代理制 會員資格制 社會理想: 讓勞方對自己的待遇也有發表意見的權利 11 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 影響勞工關係的法規 與勞工關係相關的立法,將 實際影響工會規模及工會協 商權力。 美國勞工法規已對工會組織 架構、工會管理方式、及勞 資互動模式做有限制規定。 12 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 美國勞工關係法案 〈美國勞工關係法〉積極鼓勵勞工進行團體協商。 本法通過後,美國工會會員數即增加了近三倍之多 以下即為受〈美國勞工關係法〉保障的工會活動範圍︰ 組織工會。 加入工會,不論該工會是否被業者所承認。 為求改善工作條件而進行罷工。 拒絕參與工會活動。 部分勞工不在保障範圍內。 根據本法規定,業者不得形成某些不當的勞動慣例。 13 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 不適用〈美國勞工關係法〉的 勞工類型 14 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 彌補美國勞工關係法不足規定的法規 1947 年〈塔夫特哈特利法〉 工會不能透過下列行為妨礙業者: 發動眾多糾察員圍場 以暴力手法進行罷工 威脅不支持工會活動的勞工 堅持不合法主張 任意終止現有合約並進行罷工 工作權 1959 年〈蘭德勒姆格裡芬法〉 管控影響工會會員利益的工會活動 劃定並保護工會會員權利範圍 15 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

22 實行工作權法律的州別 16 of 31 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 美國勞工關係委員會 美國勞工關係委員會為〈美國勞工關係法〉的主政單位。 此聯邦政府機構包含: 五名委員 一名總顧問 33 處各地辦公室 美國勞工關係委員會主要功能有二: 辦理工會成立投票、授與工會認證: 負責確認協商當事人及參與工會活動勞工是否適合。 防止不公平勞動慣例發生: 調查申訴案件 發布停止不公平勞動慣例的命令 17 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

24 籌組工會流程 籌組工會是工會與勞工發生關係的第一步。 填妥授權卡是籌組工會的第一步。 過三成勞工均同意簽署授權卡時,發起人才可 進行下一個流程。 工會認證方式有二: 合意投票 指定投票 部分情況可能導致美國勞工關係委員會暫不依選 舉結果授與認證。 18 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

25 授權卡例示 19 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

26 管理策略 當連署勞工多至一定程度時,有些業者可能即會 主動承認工會存在。但在這之前,工會常須透過 一場場演說,不斷向勞工洗腦成立工會的好處。 業者會想盡辦法來阻絕工會成立: 僱佣諮詢 分送傳單和短信 宣導對業者有利的觀點 組織也應提供主管與勞工法律相關的教育訓練。 20 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

27 主管對抗工會籌組之行為守則 21 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

28 工會策略 傳統策略: 電話聯繫或親往拜訪 創意策略: 建立會友制 外部施壓 揚棄以罷工或反宣傳等手法迫使公司接受工會 與業者協商制定中立條款 與業者協商制定認票條款 22 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

29 團體協商 團體協商即係指工會(代表特定勞工群)與公司管理階 層(代表業者)進行協商,確定合約期限內勞資權益各 項條款內容,同時化解雙方對合約內容的歧見。 常見的協商重點包括: 薪資 福利 工作規則 申訴程序 大部分時候,協商當事人均是有經驗的老手。 23 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

30 常見協商內容一覽表 24 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

31 換約協商 勞資協商結果對人事成本、生產力、與組織競爭力均會 產生極為重要的影響。 常見協商方式 : 分配式協商 整合式協商 態度建構 內部協商 協商會經歷不同的階段 : 提出建議方案 雙方均須開始進行一定程度的決策與判斷 面對達成協議的壓力 25 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

32 協商破裂 團體協商的目的在協議出雙方都可接受的結果。 協商破裂時: 工會可能罷工 雙方可能尋求其他外部援助 取代罷工的勞資爭議處理方式 : 調解 調查事實 仲裁 26 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

33 超過 1000 名以上工人的罷工 27 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

34 履行合約 履行合約包括: 履行合約內容 弭平內容爭議 處理違約情事 勞資契約常將這類爭議處理方式稱為申訴程序。 申訴程序進行步驟有四: 勞工向直接主管反映問題所在。 若溝通結果未盡人意,工會執行秘書即會加入討論。 若討論後問題仍未解決,但又不屬明顯違約事項,則勞工 須以將申訴事由以文字寫明,並將申訴書交由更上一層主 管。 工會執行秘書與管理階層代表溝通。 28 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

35 申訴程序進行步驟 29 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

36 勞資合作 勞資合作類型包括: 勞資決策共享 成立員工自我管理團隊 勞資爭議處理小組 擴大工作定義 勞資共享公司利潤及商業資訊 員工自我管理團隊已引發適法性爭議 30 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill

37 經判定違法的工作團隊類型 31 of 31 © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 重點在找出工作團隊是否含有違法的重要元素: 代表性工作團隊經手辦理事項,是否會影響到非團隊成員權 益?(是否代表其他員工?) 主題工作團隊處理議題是否包括薪資、申訴程序、工時及 工作條件? 管理階層介 入 工作團隊須與任何管理階層溝通決議內容嗎? 業者主導性工作團隊是否由業者挑選人士組成,並受業者指揮運 作?

38 The Collective Bargaining Process What Is collective bargaining? Both management and labor are required by law to negotiate wage, hours, and terms and conditions of employment “ in good faith. ” What Is good faith bargaining? Both parties communicate and negotiate. They match proposals with counterproposals in a reasonable effort to arrive at an agreement. It does not mean that one party compels another to agree to a proposal or make any specific concessions.

39 Violations of Good Faith Bargaining Surface bargaining Inadequate concessions Inadequate proposals and demands Dilatory tactics Imposing conditions. Making unilateral changes in conditions. Bypassing the representative. Committing unfair labor practices during negotiations. Withholding information Ignoring bargaining items

40 Union/Management Relationships Conflict Armed truce Power bargaining Accommodation Cooperation Collusion

41 Collective Bargaining Process Preparing for negotiation Bargaining issues Negotiation Negotiation breakdown Reaching the agreement Ratifying the agreement Administration of the agreement

42 Psychological Aspects of Collective Bargaining Difficult because process is an adversarial situation and must be dealt with as such Psychological aspects vitally important

43 Preparing for Negotiations Sources of negotiating information Local and industry pay and benefits comparisons Distribution demographics of the workforce Benefit costs, overall earnings levels, and the amount and cost of overtime Cost of the current labor contract and the increased cost — total, per employee, and per hour — of the union ’ s demands. Grievances and feedback from supervisors Counteroffers and arguments.

44 Preparing for Negotiations (cont ’ d) Sources of negotiating information (cont’d) Attitude surveys to test employee reactions to sections of the contract that management may feel require change informal conferences with local union leaders to discuss the operational effectiveness of the contract and to send up trial balloons on management ideas for change.

45 Preparing for Negotiations Mandatory bargaining issues - wages, hours, etc. Permissive bargaining issues – may be raised Prohibited bargaining issues – statutorily outlawed

46 Classes of Bargaining Items Voluntary (permissible) bargaining items Items in collective bargaining over which bargaining is neither illegal nor mandatory — neither party can be compelled against its wishes to negotiate over those items. Illegal bargaining items Items in collective bargaining that are forbidden by law; for example, a clause agreeing to hire “ union members exclusively ” would be illegal in a right-to-work state. Mandatory bargaining items Items in collective bargaining that a party must bargain over if they are introduced by the other party — for example, pay.

47 Bargaining Items Mandatory Rates of pay Wages Hours of employment Overtime pay Shift differentials Holidays Vacations Severance pay Pensions Insurance benefits Profit-sharing plans Christmas bonuses Company housing, meals, and discounts Employee security Job performance Union security Management–union relationship Drug testing of employees Permissible Indemnity bonds Management rights as to union affairs Pension benefits of retired employees Scope of the bargaining unit Including supervisors in the contract Additional parties to the contract such as the international union Use of union label Settlement of unfair labor changes Prices in cafeteria Continuance of past contract Membership of bargaining team Employment of strike breakers Illegal Closed shop Separation of employees based on race Discriminatory treatment Source: Michael B. Carnell and Christina Heavrin, Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001), p. 177.

48 Bargaining Hints Be sure to set clear objectives for every bargaining item, and be sure you understand the reason for each. Do not hurry. When in doubt, caucus with your associates. Be well prepared with firm data supporting your position. Always strive to keep some flexibility in your position. Don’t concern yourself just with what the other party says and does; find out why. Respect the importance of face saving for the other party. Be alert to the real intentions of the other party—not only for goals, but also for priorities. Be a good listener.

49 Bargaining Hints (cont ’ d) Build a reputation for being fair but firm. Learn to control your emotions and use them as a tool. As you make each bargaining move, be sure you know its relationship to all other moves. Measure each move against your objectives. Pay close attention to the wording of every clause negotiated; they are often a source of grievances. Remember that collective bargaining is a compromise process. There is no such thing as having all the pie. Try to understand people and their personalities. Consider the impact of present negotiations on those in future years.

50 Bargaining Issues Document that results from collective bargaining process is labor agreement or contract Recognition Management Rights Union Security Compensation and Benefits Grievance Procedure Employee Security

51 Recognition Appears at the beginning of the labor agreement Identifies the union that is recognized as the bargaining representative Describes the bargaining unit

52 Management Rights Section that is often (but not always) written into labor agreement which spells out rights of management

53 Union Security Closed Shop -Arrangement whereby union membership is a prerequisite to employment Union Shop - Requires that all employees become members of the union after a specified period Maintenance of Membership - Must continue their memberships until the termination of the agreement

54 Union Security (Continued) Agency Shop - Nonunion members pay union the equivalent of membership dues as a kind of tax Exclusive Bargaining Shop - Company must deal with union that has achieved recognition, but employees are not obligated to join Open Shop – Equal terms for union members and nonmembers Dues Checkoff - Company agrees to withhold union dues

55 Compensation and Benefits Wage rate schedule Overtime and premium pay Jury pay Layoff or severance pay Holidays Vacation Family care

56 Grievance Procedure Means by which employees can voice dissatisfaction with specific management actions Procedures for disciplinary action by management Termination procedure that must be followed

57 Employee Security Seniority Grievance handling procedures

58 Job-Related Factors Many of rules governing employee actions on job are included

59 Negotiating the Agreement Begins with each side presenting initial demands Suggests a certain amount of give and take Each side does not expect to obtain all demands presented

60 Breakdowns in Negotiations Third party intervention Union strategies for overcoming breakdowns Management strategies for overcoming breakdowns

61 Third Party Intervention Mediation - neutral party comes in when impasse has occurred Arbitration – impartial third party makes binding decision to settle dispute Sources of mediators and arbitrators

62 Union Strategies for Overcoming Negotiation Breakdowns Strikes – union members refuse to work to pressure management in negotiations Boycotts – union members agree to refuse to use or buy firm’s products

63 Management Strategies for Overcoming Negotiation Breakdowns Lockout – keep employees out; operate firm by placing management and nonunion workers in striking workers’ jobs Hire replacement for strikers

64 Ratifying the Agreement May be more difficult for union Until approved by majority of members, proposed agreement is not final

65 Administration of the Agreement Larger and perhaps more important part of collective bargaining Seldom viewed by public Agreement establishes the union- management relationship for duration of the contract

66 Grievances Grievance Any factor involving wages, hours, or conditions of employment that is used as a complaint against the employer. Sources of grievances Absenteeism Insubordination Overtime Plant rules

67 Grievance Procedure Grievant and shop steward meet with supervisor. If not resolved, Employee files formal grievance Grievant and shop steward meet with supervisor’s boss. If not resolved, Meeting with higher-level managers. If not resolved, matter goes to arbitration.

68 Handling Grievances: Do Investigate and handle each case as though it may eventually result in arbitration. Talk with the employee about his or her grievance; give the person a full hearing. Require the union to identify specific contractual provisions allegedly violated. Comply with the contractual time limits for handling the grievance. Visit the work area of the grievance. Determine whether there were any witnesses. Examine the grievant’s personnel record. Fully examine prior grievance records. Treat the union representative as your equal. Hold your grievance discussions privately. Fully inform your own supervisor of grievance matters.

69 Handling Grievances: Don ’ t Discuss the case with the union steward alone—the grievant should be there. Make arrangements with individual employees that are inconsistent with the labor agreement. Hold back the remedy if the company is wrong. Admit to the binding effect of a past practice. Relinquish to the union your rights as a manager. Settle grievances based on what is “fair.” Instead, stick to the labor agreement. Bargain over items not covered by the contract. Treat as subject to arbitration claims demanding the discipline or discharge of managers. Give long written grievance answers. Trade a grievance settlement for a grievance withdrawal. Deny grievances because “your hands have been tied by management.” Agree to informal amendments in the contract.


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