Presentation on theme: "New College English Book Two 东北财经大学国际商务外语学院制作. Objectives In this unit you will: Learn some information about psychology know your personality traits."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives In this unit you will: Learn some information about psychology know your personality traits discuss about mental balance and health enlarge vocabulary through reading write about psychology in our life
What Is Psychology ? Psychology is a young and growing science that touches on a broad range of human activities. In general, however, one can say that psychology tries to explain why people act, think, and feel the way they do. Psychologists are interested not only in how individual minds work but also in the various interactions of minds in society. It should be noticed that psychology provides methods of analyzing and understanding human behavior and emotions that are not based on moral codes.
It is important not to confuse psychology with psychiatry( 精神病学 ) which is a branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis ( 诊断 ) and treatment of serious mental disorders. Psychiatrists, who work in hospitals, use a variety of methods including drugs, light therapy and electric shock treatments to cure or to control mentally disturbed people.
However, the work of both psychiatrists and psychologists often involves an analytical process which interprets the unconscious or subconscious forces that prevent a person from functioning satisfactorily in daily life. By analyzing these forces and making the person aware of them, it is often possible to help the person deal with his or her mental and emotional problems.
The whole field of psychoanalysis originated with the research of the Austrian doctor, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). According to his theories, people are driven by irrational forces or primitive instincts. Freud believed that the inner struggle between instincts and conscience often led to disaster which was manifested in the form of personal tragedies such as murder and suicide or collective tragedies such as war. He advocated the use of psychoanalysis to help people control irrational forces. Much of Freud’s work was based on his interpretation of dreams and sexual instincts.
The Swiss doctor, Carl Gustav Jung(1875- 1891), is considered to be the other founder of the modern science of psychology. He proposed a theory of the collective unconscious (the part of the mind which holds the deepest and most hidden thought and feelings) of humanity that was not based on sexuality, but rather on universal symbols and images which he called “archetypes”. According to Jung, the mental and emotional experiences of all human beings are influenced by universal archetypes. These archetypes include various representations of the dark, inferior and uncivilized side of human beings. Jung used his theory not only to analyze dreams but also myths and folktales from many different cultures.
The whole field of psychology has evolved and expanded considerably since the early part of the twentieth century. There are now many branches of psychology and it is no longer limited to clinical work and the analysis of dreams. Over the years, qualitative and quantitative experiments on animals and humans have provided a vast amount of information on social behavior, mental development, emotional development, learning processes, motivation, personality differences, and sensory perceptions.
Men and women with training in psychology now work in many different careers ranging from therapists to advertising agents. The findings of psychological research are used to help the victims of family violence, to design aptitude tests, to carry out efficiency studies in the workplace, to develop educational strategies, to conduct political campaigns, and to predict consumer spending. In fact, there is hardly any aspect of modern society that has not been influenced in some way by research in the field of psychology.
Psyche test is a popular way in which you know something more about yourself. Although it is not very scientific, to some extent, it is reasonable.Please take the following psyche test and see what type you are. Directions: look at the pictures carefully and select the shape you find most appealing. Consider both form and color. What Type You Are ?
1. carefree, playful, cheerful You love a free and spontaneous( 自然的 ) life. And you strive to enjoy every moment, in accordance with the motto: “You only live once.” You are very curious and open about everything new. You thrive on( 兴旺, 繁荣 ) change. Nothing is worse than when you feel tied down. You experience your environment as being versatile ( 多样的 )and always good for a surprise.
2. independent, unconventional unfettered You demand a free and unattached ( 不依附 的 )life for yourself that allows you to determine your own course. You have an artistic bent in your work or leisure activities. Your urge for freedom sometimes causes you to do exactly the opposite of what is expected of you. Your lifestyle is highly individualistic. You would never follow trends. On the contrary, you seek to live according to your own ideas and convictions( 信念 ), even if this means swimming against the tide.
3. introspective, sensitive, reflective You come to grips( 勉力对付 ) more frequently and thoroughly with yourself and your environment than do most people. You detest( 厌恶 ) superficiality. You’d rather be alone than have to suffer through small talk. Your relationships with your friends are very strong, which gives you the inner tranquility and harmony that you require. You do not mind being alone for extended periods of time. You are rarely bored.
4. harmonious, balanced, down to earth Your value a natural style and love that which is uncomplicated. People admire you because you have both feet planted firmly on the ground and they can depend on you. You give those who are close to you security and space. You are perceived as being warm and human. You reject everything that is garish( 耀眼的 ) and trite( 平庸的 ). You tend to be skeptical toward the whims of fashion trends. Your style is easy and elegant.
5. pragmatic, confident, professional You take charge of your life, and place less faith in luck and more in your own deeds. You solve problems in a practical, uncomplicated manner. You take a realistic view of the things in your daily life and tackle them without wavering. You are given a great deal of responsibility at work, because people know that you can be depended upon. Your pronounced strength of will projects ( 投 射 )your self-assurance to others. You are never fully satisfied until you have accomplished your goals.
6. peaceful, discreet( 谨慎的 ), non-aggressive You are easy-going and independent. You do not need to be the center of attention, instead you graciously let others take center stage. You have no set plans, rather you prefer to "go with the flow," relying on your sharp instincts and intuition as situations present themselves to you. You are very social and popular, yet you are perfectly happy going off alone to pursue your interests. There is a quiet confidence about you.
7. analytical, trustworthy, self-assured You appreciate high quality and things that endure. Consequently, you like to surround your self with little “gems,”( 宝石, 珍品 ) which are often overlooked by others. Culture and tradition are important to you. You have found your own personal style, which is elegant and exclusive,( 独家的 ) free from the whims of fashion. Your ideal, upon which you base your life, is sophisticated( 不落俗套的, 精 致的 ) pleasure.
8. romantic, dreamy, emotional You are a very sensitive person. You refuse to view things only from a sober, rational standpoint. You listen to feelings. It is important for you to have dreams in life. Your reject people who scorn romanticism and are guided only by rationality. You refuse to let anything confine the rich variety of your moods and emotions.
9. dynamic, ( 有活力的 )active extroverted You are quite willing to accept certain risks and to make a strong commitment ( 献身 )in exchange for interesting and varied work. Routine, in contrast, tends to have a paralyzing effect on you. What you like most is to be able to play an active role in events. In doing so, Your initiative( 首创精神, 进取心 ) is highly pronounced.
A Fun Test: Come Along on an Incredible journey into the Desert! Look at the psychology test on page 108 of your text book. Follow the instructions.
Explanations Based on Japanese Archetypes ( 原型 ), the desert represents a hardship. Each of the animals represents an aspect of your life. The order in which you sacrifice the animals might be said to represent the importance of these things to you. The one that you sacrificed first is the least important, and the one that you kept is the most important.
The cow represents basic needs. The sheep represents friendship. The lion represents pride. The monkey represents creativity. The horse represents passion.
Word Study Text Structure Language Points Further Development Writing Activity
Word Study 1.bleeding: 出血的 blood, bled, bled a bleeding wound What a bleeding idiot! ( 英 ) 该死的傻瓜 ! 2. capsule: 胶囊 pill, tablet, syrup space capsule 太空舱 3. harmless: 无害的, 不伤人的 be harmless to sb harmful do harm to sb
4. heal: 使愈合, 治愈 cure A physician‘s sacred duty is to heal the sick. 医 生的神圣职责就是治愈病人. His shoulder healed, and he went back to his job. 他的肩伤痊愈了, 于是他回去继续工作。 Time heals all sorrows. Penicillin cured him of pneumonia. 青霉素治愈 了他的肺炎。 5. placebo 安慰剂
6. prescribe 开药方, 规定 prescription The doctor prescribed three days‘ rest for her. 医 生为她开了三天休息。 Do not prescribe to me what I‘m going to do. 不 要规定我做什么事。 7. reaction 反应, 对抗 8. reality 现实 make sth a reality 实现 bring sb back to reality 使 … 面对现实.
9. reassurance 安慰, 保证 assurance The reassurance from her supporters could not take her out of the fact that she had already lost the opportunity to take part in the 2008 Beijing Olympics. 她的支持者们给与她的安慰也无法让她直面无 缘２００８年北京奥运会的现实． They answered with assurance that it was against the rules. 他们很有把握地回答说那是违 反规定的。 10. seasickness 晕船 homesickness lovesickness
11. swear 发誓, 咒骂 They refused to swear on a Bible. 他们拒绝手按 《圣经》发誓。 What is the woman swearing at? 那女人在咒骂 什么 ? 12. treatment 治疗, 疗法 13. tribal 部落的 tribe 14. ulcer 溃疡 mouth ulcer stomach ulcer
1. 这种安慰剂对神经系统无伤害. The placebo is harmless to the nerve system. 2. 医生为我的咳嗽开了胶囊, 并让我多喝水. The doctor prescribed some capsules for my cough and asked me to drink water a lot. 3. 用了同事给的药方后, 她的口腔溃疡好了 After following the prescription given by her colleague, her mouth ulcer healed. 4. 不讲理的乘客开始骂司机, 可司机没理他. The irrational passenger started to swear at the driver, but he showed no reaction. 5. 尽管有妈妈安慰她, 小女孩儿看到出血的手指还是止不 住哭泣. Despite her mother’s reassurance, the little girl could not stop crying at the sight of her bleeding finger.
请选择 assure 或 ensure 的适当形式填空 Before going to bed she ——— herself that all the doors and windows were locked. (assured) This medicine will ———— you a good night’s sleep. (ensure) I cannot ——— that he will be there in time. (ensure) He ———— me of his readiness to help. ( assured)
请选择 heal, cure, treat 的适当形式填空 Penicillin ——— him of pneumonia. (cured) The cut in her leg has —— completely, without leaving a scar. (healed) She is being ——— with a new drug. ( treated) What can’t be ——— must be endured. (cured) That would will soon ——— if she keeps it clean. ( heal) The doctors wish to ——— her illness successfully. ( treat)
Pre-Reading Question When you have any health problems, will you always go to the doctor? If so, what do you expect from the doctor?
Text Structure Part I (p1-2) Introduction The term placebo is introduced: When it is prescribed and what it is. Part II (P3-7) The study of the placebo 1) One explanation: The placebo works because the human mind fools itself. 2) The other explanation: The placebo makes the wish to get better become reality.
3) The most powerful placebo of all: the doctor Supporting evidence: First group(led by a doctor): 70% of the people got better. Second group(led by a nurse): only 25% of the people got better
Part III (P8-9) Different cases in which a placebo may work. The placebo has been found to work with seasickness, coughs, colds, and pain after an operation. An experiment was done to see if it works with old people: The first group were given nothing at all. Result: The first group showed no changes from the way old people in that village had always been.
The second group were given a placebo Result: The second group had much better health and a lower death rate. The third group were given a real drug which was intended to help with the problems of old age. Result: the third group showed much the same results as the group that took the placebo.
Part IV(P10-11) Some doctors think that if the placebo can have bad effects it should never be used. Other countries are known to have been using placebos for hundreds of years. Part V (P12) Conclusion It is suggested that the human mind is stronger than we think it is.
Language Points 1.Sometimes all a sick person needs is some reassurance that all will be well. (L3) 有时病人所需要的只是一个一切都会好的保 证. all+ sb. needs/ cares about/remembers… is + 表语 某人所需要的 / 关心的 / 记着的一切就是 此句中, all 后面省略了 that. All 后面带的是定 语从句.
中国当前所需要的是和平与稳定. All China needs now is peace and stability. 我所关心的是公司是否能从这笔买卖中获利. All I care about is whether my company can make profit from the trade. 我们所能预见到的就是世界的未来将以和平与发 展为主题. All we can expect is that peace and development are the theme of the world future.
2. shot: injection have/get/ give sb s shot in the arm 扎针 3. open up: develop or make sth available 展示, 揭示 His stories opened up new worlds of the imagination. Einstein’s theories opened up a whole new area for study. 4. These people say that if the mind is fooled into thinking it got medicine, then it will act as if it did, and the body will feel better. 这些人说如果能使人脑上当, 误以为得 到了药物治疗, 那么人脑就会像真的得到了药物一样行 事, 于是病体就会好转. fool sb into doing sth: trick sb into doing sth 愚弄别人 去做某事 He has fooled a lot of people into believing he is a rich man.
类似结构的短语 : to persuade sb into doing sth to cheat sb into doing sth to deceive sb into doing sth to frighten sb into doing sth to force sb into doing sth to trap sb into doing sth 使 … 陷入圈套 to lure sb into doing sth 诱惑 … 做 … 5. It seems that if patients think they have been given medicine, they will have hope. (L21) seem 一词主要有以下三种用法 : 1) 句型 : it seems that/as if ( 既可以是虚拟语气, 也可以 是陈述语气 ) 2) 主句 + seem to do… 3) 主语 + seem (to be) + 形容词 / 名词 / 介词短语 / 分词等
似乎人人知道成功的法则, 但很少有人能那样做. It seems that everybody knows the rules for success, but few can practice them. 这种疗法成功与否在很大程度上似乎取决于病人 与医生之间的关系． (L24) The success of this treatment seems to rest a lot with the relationship between the patient and the doctor. 他们采用的很多 “ 疗法 ” 看似不可能治好病人， 但是确实有效． （ L56) Many of the “treatments” they use do not seem able to make a sick person better, and yet such treatments work.
6. rest with: lie with 取决于, 得靠 … 这事要由她来做决定． It rests with her to decide. ( The decision rests with her. ) Whether Chinese homemade movies can win the Oscar or not rests with many factors. 中国的国产电影是否能够赢得奥斯卡取决于很多 因素． The popularity of online songs rests with netizens’s recognition and support. 网络歌曲的流行取决于网民们的认可和支持．
7. in a way(L27): partly, to some degree 就某种意义来说, 在某种程度上 The changes are an improvement in a way. In a way, her health is much improved, but she is still not really well. In a way you are right. 8. The placebo has been found to work with a lot of different cases. ( L36) work with : 与 … 一起工作； 在 … 方面起作用；适用于 许多企业正寻求与大专院校合作的机会． Many companies are looking for opportunities to work with colleges and universities. 这种词汇习得的方法根本不适合大学生． This strategy of developing vocabulary doesn’t work with college students at all.
9. This would seem to show that a lot of how you react to medicine is in your mind rather than in your body. (L51) 这似乎表明药物反应在很大 程度上是心理上的而不是生理上的. rather than 与其 … ； 宁愿 … ， 而不是 … 那双手套谈不上漂亮, 但戴起来很舒服． That pair of gloves are comfortable rather than pretty. As we know, Olympic gold medallist Liu Xiang is a hurdler rather than a sprinter. 如我们所知, 奥运冠军刘翔是一名跨栏运动员， 而不是一名短跑选手．
Further Development Trying to be a psychologist: Have you ever heard of the story of tragic star fan named Yang Li Juan? If you were a psychologist, how would you offer help to her?
Anger Management We all know what anger is and we’ve all felt it. Anger is a completely normal, usually healthy human emotion. But when it gets out of control and turns destructive, it can lead to problems--- -problems at work, in your personal relationships and in the overall quality of your life. How to manage anger positively ? It is worth thinking. Work in groups to discuss and make a list of solutions.
The instinctive, natural way to express anger is to respond aggressively. Anger is a natural adaptive response to threats, it inspires powerful, often aggressive feelings and behaviors which allow us to fight and to defend ourselves when we are attacked. A certain amount of anger, therefore, is necessary to our survival. On the other hand, we can’t physically lash out at every person or object that irritates or annoys us; laws, social norms, and common sense place limits on how far our anger can take us.
People use a variety of both conscious and unconscious processes to deal with their angry feelings. The three main approaches are expressing, suppressing and calming. How to manage anger? Relaxation cognitive restructuring ( change the way you think) Problem solving better communication using humor changing your environment
Group Work From time to time, we may get annoyed by something unpleasant or stressful in our daily life. Work in groups to come up with at least 10 ways of getting comfort during a difficult time.
Talking to yourself Exposing you to the aromas of certain desserts. Being with someone else. Listening to music Watching TV Going for a walk Reading Praying for Going to cinema Dining in an expensive restaurant.
Directions: So far you have learned quite a lot about how psychology works in different cases. Write a composition entitled: College Students Should Have a Healthy Mind in a Healthy Body. You should write at least 120 words. Remember to write neatly. 1. 一些大学生有心理问题 ; 2. 大学生应保持心理健康 ; 3. 因此,……
College Students Should Have a Healthy Mind in a Healthy Body When they experience major turning points in their lives, some college students have hidden mental problems. These problems may result from academic pressure, anxiety about interpersonal relationships, love failure or career-related matters. Without parents’ immediate help or teachers’ adequate guidance, a lot of physical and emotional disorders touch them. They suffer from depression ( 抑郁症 ), sleep disorders or poor academic performance. Anxious hearts, hopeless minds and even nervous breakdowns ( 神经衰弱 ) chase them.
Mental health is part of the most valuable wealth students can ever have. On campus students learn to reason and act with wisdom. With a healthy mind in a healthy body, they can challenge all hardships later in life. Today’s competitive world needs more versatile talents ( 多面手，多 才多艺的英才 ), especially those who are firm-willed and have confidence in themselves.
Therefore, all sides concerned ( 有关各方 ) should make joint efforts to help students solve their mental problems. Schools may offer optional courses ( 选修课 ) and establish campus counseling ( 咨询 ) center to help students. Parents, teachers and classmates could encourage them to go to psychological clinic. Students must develop a positive mental attitude and be more optimistic. We believe those who have mental health can do great things in the future.