2Chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. Chronic diseases —such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes—are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. Chronic diseases account for 70% of all deaths in the U.S., which is 1.7 million each year. These diseases also cause major limitations in daily living for almost 1 out of 10 Americans or about 25 million people. Although chronic diseases are among the most common and costly health problems, they are also among the most preventable. Adopting healthy behaviors such as eating nutritious foods, being physically active and avoiding tobacco use can prevent or control the devastating effects of these diseases.Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse affect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy.The primary treatment for obesity is dieting and physical exercise. If this fails, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. In severe cases, surgery is performed or an intragastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century.
3Two Chronic Conditions Type 2 DiabetesHypertensionConclusionResources
4HypertensionIt is estimated that 1 of 3 American adults has high blood pressure or hypertension. Having high blood pressure increases one’s chance for developing heart disease, a stroke, and other serious conditions.High blood pressure is sometimes called the ‘silent killer’ because it usually has no noticeable warning signs or symptoms until other serious problems arise; therefore, many people do not know that they have it. All persons, including children, can develop high blood pressure. However, high blood pressure is easily detectable and usually can be controlled. Maintaining a healthy blood pressure is an important public health strategy. Therefore, it is important for you to know your blood pressure level and to check it regularly.Blood pressure is the force of blood against the artery walls in the body. Blood pressure normally rises and falls throughout the day. When it consistently stays too high for too long, it is called hypertension. People of all ages can develop high blood pressure.
5Hypertension CostsCosts- The cost of hypertension varies greatly depending upon the severity and method of treatment. In a recent study Balu (2006), came up with following:Total cost is $56 billion (Non-institutionalized adult population)$1,131 per year for individual with hypertensionMedication $547 (48%)Inpatient visit $343 (30%)Outpatient $115 (10%)Others $126 (11%)*Other cost include emergency room visits, office based medical visits, home health visits and other medical expenses.
6Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension There are several things that you can do to keep your blood pressure healthy. These include maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active, keeping a healthy diet, controlling diabetes, avoiding tobacco and excess alcohol use, and other factors. These actions should become part of your regular lifestyle. Lifestyle changes to help reduce risk include losing weight (if necessary), modifying diet and getting regular exercise. Medicines may also be prescribed to reduce blood pressure if necessary.Treatment for high blood pressure depends on the severity of the disease and whether you have other health problems, such as heart failure or diabetes, or you are pregnant. Your doctor may want you to try lifestyle changes first. If your blood pressure is above a certain level, your doctor may prescribe medicine along with the lifestyle changes.Most people with high blood pressure will need two or more medicines, including a thiazide-type diuretic, to lower their blood pressure to below 140/90 mm Hg, which is the goal for people with uncomplicated hypertension. If you have other conditions, such as diabetes, heart failure, coronary artery disease, or chronic kidney disease, your goal blood pressure is lower
7Interesting Facts about Hypertension The rate of hypertension is twice as high among blacks as whites in the United States.The rate of hypertension among men living in Vermont is also twice the national average.Women of all races are afflicted by this disorder far less than men.Back to Slide 3
8Type 2 DiabetesType 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. Insulin is necessary for the body to be able to use glucose for energy. When you eat food, the body breaks down all of the sugars and starches into glucose, which is the basic fuel for the cells in the body. Insulin takes the sugar from the blood into the cells. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it can cause two problems:Right away, your cells may be starved for energy.Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart.Finding out you have diabetes is scary. But don't panic. Type 2 diabetes is serious, but people with diabetes can live long, healthy, happy lives.While diabetes occurs in people of all ages and races, some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population.
9Type 2 DiabetesPrediabetes is a term used to distinguish people who are at increased risk of developing diabetes. People with prediabetes have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Some people may have both IFG and IGT. IFG is a condition in which the fasting blood sugar level is elevated (100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL) after an overnight fast but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes. IGT is a condition in which the blood sugar level is elevated (140 to 199 mg/dL) after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Progression to diabetes among those with prediabetes is not inevitable. Studies suggest that weight loss and increased physical activity among people with prediabetes prevent or delay diabetes and may return blood glucose levels to normal.People with diabetes may have all, some, or none of these symptoms:Frequent urinationExcessive thirstUnexplained weight lossExtreme hungerSudden vision changesTingling or numbness in hands or feetFeeling very tired much of the timeVery dry skinSores that are slow to healMore infections than usual.
10Type 2 Diabetes CostsThe median annual direct medical costs for subjects with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes, BMI 30 kg/m(2), and no microvascular, neuropathic, or cardiovascular complications were 1,700 dollars for white men and 2,100 dollars for white women.A 10-kg/m(2) increase in BMI, treatment with oral antidiabetic or antihypertensive agents, diabetic kidney disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease were each associated with 10-30% increases in cost.Insulin treatment, angina, and MI were each associated with 60-90% increases in cost. Dialysis was associated with an 11-fold increase in cost.What did the researchers find?Quality of life was lower and depression was more common for patients with diabetes and those at high risk than for those at low risk for developing it. Respondents with lower incomes, increased age, and obesity had lower quality of life, and among individuals at high risk for diabetes, those with more risk factors had lower scores than those with fewer risk factors.
11Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Healthy lifestyle choices can help you prevent type 2 diabetes. Even if diabetes runs in your family, diet and exercise can help you prevent the disease. And if you've already been diagnosed with diabetes, the same healthy lifestyle choices can help you prevent potentially serious complications.Eat healthy foods. Choose foods low in fat and calories. Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Strive for variety to prevent boredom.Get more physical activity. Aim for 30 minutes of moderate physical activity a day. Take a brisk daily walk. Ride your bike. Swim laps. If you can't fit in a long workout, break it up into smaller sessions spread throughout the day.Lose excess pounds. If you're overweight, losing even 10 pounds can reduce the risk of diabetes. To keep your weight in a healthy range, focus on permanent changes to your eating and exercise habits. Motivate yourself by remembering the benefits of losing weight, such as a healthier heart, more energy and improved self-esteem.Sometimes medication is an option as well. Oral diabetes drugs such as metformin (Glucophage) and rosiglitazone (Avandia) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes — but healthy lifestyle choices remain essential.
12Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes The primary treatment for type 2 diabetes is exercise and diet.You should learn basic diabetes management skills. They will help prevent complications and the need for medical care. These skills include:How to test and record your blood glucoseWhat to eat and whenHow to take medications, if neededHow to recognize and treat low and high blood sugarHow to handle sick daysWhere to buy diabetes supplies and how to store themThe immediate goal of treatment is to lower high blood glucose levels. The long-term goals of treatment are to prevent diabetes-related complications, such as:Amputation of limbsBlindnessHeart diseaseKidney failure*It may take several months to learn the basic skills. Always continue to educate yourself about the disease and its complications. Learn how to control and live with diabetes. Over time, stay current on new research and treatment.
13Interesting Facts about Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes affects mostly adults. However, recent reports suggest although type 2 diabetes is still rare in children, it is being diagnosed more frequently in children and adolescents, particularly in American Indians, African Americans, and Hispanic/Latino American populations.The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, millions of people around the world have type 2 diabetesBack to Slide 3
14Conclusion Back to Slide 3 While neither condition is completely unavoidable there are numerous lifestyle changes that can decrease ones risk of hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes.Your chances of having high blood pressure are higher if you: * Are overweight * Eat foods high in salt * Do not get regular exercise * Smoke * Drink alcohol heavilyYou are at risk for getting prediabetes or diabetes if:You are overweight or obese.You have a parent, brother, or sister with diabetes.You were diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy or had a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds at birth.You belong to any of the following ethnic groups: black, Native American, Latin American, or Asian/Pacific Islander.You have high blood pressure.Your HDL is less than 40 (for men) or less than 50 (for women), or your triglyceride level is higher than 250 mg per dL.Back to Slide 3