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NEW DEVELOPMENT FOR PASTA-PRODUCTS: IMMATURE WHEAT AND FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS NEW DEVELOPMENT FOR PASTA-PRODUCTS: IMMATURE WHEAT AND FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS.

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Presentation on theme: "NEW DEVELOPMENT FOR PASTA-PRODUCTS: IMMATURE WHEAT AND FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS NEW DEVELOPMENT FOR PASTA-PRODUCTS: IMMATURE WHEAT AND FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 NEW DEVELOPMENT FOR PASTA-PRODUCTS: IMMATURE WHEAT AND FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS NEW DEVELOPMENT FOR PASTA-PRODUCTS: IMMATURE WHEAT AND FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 * CRA – Istituto Sper. Cerealicoltura Roma Roma M. G. D’EGIDIO*, M. A. PAGANI**, M. C. CASIRAGHI**, M. ZARDI** and C. CECCHINI* ** Università degli Studi Milano

2 FOOD PROPERTIES in the past nowadays NO ADVERSE EFFECTS WELL-BEING BETTER HEALTH REDUCTION OF THE RISK OF DISEASES FUNCTIONAL FOOD “A food can be regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect one or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way that is relevant either to improve the state of health and well-being and/or the reduction of risk of disease” (ILSI, 2002) III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

3 FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS FOS FRUCTOLIGOSACCHARIDES carbohydrates forming a short linear chain of fructose (2-9 units) with a single glucose unit at the head present as a plant storage carbohydrates in a number of vegetables and plants including wheat and other cereals, onion, bananas, garlic and chicory soluble in water non digestible in the small intestine (1.5 kcal/g) typically non viscous highly fermentable PREBIOTIC EFFECT n Mitsuoka et al.,1987; Tashiro et al., 1992; Spiegel et al., 1994 III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

4 Studies have shown that a large quantity of FOS is stored in the stems and grains of WHEAT for the first period of its growing cycle. IMMATURE WHEAT at “MILKY PHASE” 9 DAA 13 DAA 17 DAA 21 DAA 28 DAA 35 DAA days after anthesis (DAA) durum wheat is richer in FOS than common wheat moisture MILKY PHASE WAXY PHASE PHISIOLOGICAL PHASE III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

5 drying at 35°C 24- 48 h EARS at MILKY PHASE MOISTURE  65% MOISTURE KERNELS 13-15% MILLING WHOLE MEAL FLOUR IMMATURE WHEAT GRAINS (IWG) need a drying process in order to reduce their moisture content and so to be used as raw material in conventional processes THRESHING LABORATORY SCALE The whole process is to be optimized for industrial scale III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

6 CHARACTERISTICS OF IMMATURE WHEAT GRAINS (IWG) more balanced aminoacid composition (4-5 g lys /100 g protein) IWG: natural source of FOS lower level of starch (40-50%) and amylose (~20%) higher content of soluble sugars (2-5%) more relevant  -amylase activity (2-15 IU/g d.m) similar protein content but higher level of albumins and globulins and lower/absence of gliadins and glutenins incapability of forming GLUTEN NETWORK higher content of total fiber (13-15%) Evolution of main components in durum wheat grains III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components FOS protein content total starch lysine soluble sugars g g MILKY PHASE IWG necessity to use IWG flour in mixture with semolina in conventional pasta-making process in comparison with MATURE WHEAT GRAINS, IWG present a:

7 AIM I characterization of protein and starch fractions of IWG in order to identify the more suitable technological processes to obtain FUNCTIONAL FOODS PROTEIN Protein solubility Accessibility of thiols SDS-PAGE characterization IMMUNOBLOTTING characterization Surface hydrophobicity STARCH Total starch content Amylose/Amilopectine ratio Soluble Sugars Viscoamylographic test Microscopic investigation III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

8 PROTEIN EVOLUTION DURING RIPENING ( cv OFANTO ) PROTEINS ACQUIRE A MORE COMPACT AGGREGATION STATE AFTER THE MILKY PHASE the decrease in albumins and globulins is associated to a noticeable increase in protein aggregates requiring urea and DTT for their solubilization a marked decrease of both total and accessible thiol is assorbed at 17 daa 17 th day soluble proteins insoluble proteins urea and DTT soluble proteins 17 th day III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

9 IWG could be an interesting raw material for GLUTEN FREE FOOD characterization by SDS-PAGE and IMMUNOBLOTTING using commercial anti-gliadin antibodies confirmed that synthesis of the major gluten polypeptides begins at 17 days after anthesis, and that no immunoreactive gluten material was present at 9 or 13 daa SDS-PAGE GLIADIN 282117913 days after anthesis 913172128 GLIADIN days after anthesis IMMUNOBLOTTING kDa94 68 45 29 20 III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

10 STARCH PROPERTIES in IMMATURE and MATURE grains IMMATURE GRAINS MATURE GRAINS IMMATURE GRAINS MATURE GRAINS Ø granules = 20-30 µm Ø granules = 2-3 µm Characteristics of starch can influence its digestibility IWG: potential ingredient for FUNCTIONAL FOOD IWG flour semolina STARCH (%d.b.) 59.479.0 AMYLOSE/ AMYLOPECTINE 20.3/ 79.7 23.3/ 76.4 SOLUBLE SUGARS (%w.b.) 5.61.7  -AMYLASE ACTIVITY (UI/g d.b.) 7.50.2 TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

11 study of the characteristics of IWG – enriched foods AIM II DRIED PASTA FRESH PASTA BREAD III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

12 EXPERIMENTAL PASTA-PRODUCTS DRIED PASTA: SPAGHETTI SHAPE (  = 1.65mm) 30% IWG and 70% semolina Formulation: 100% semolina (REFERENCE SAMPLE) HT LT PILOT PLANT SCALE (CRA-ISC, Rome) HIGH TEMPERATURE: T max = 90°C; 8hLOW TEMPERATURE: T = 50°C; 20 h III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components 100% semolina30% IWG +70% semolina COLOUR DETERMINATION HT LT HT furosine level= 755 mg /100g protein more than 50% LYSINE UNAVAILABLE 100% semolina 30% IWG 30% IWG +70% semolina 100% semolina

13 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF DRIED PASTA* 100% semolina SPAGHETTI TOTAL FIBRE SOLUBLE SUGARS 30% IWG + 70% semolina PROTEIN TOTAL STARCH FOS 11.1 11.8 74.9 67.4 0.70 0.90 3.1 5.2 1.7 4.0 III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components RESISTENT STARCH 1.1 1.5 Experimental ** values reported on packaging 14.6 ** 13.0 ** 59.0 ** 63.5 ** 1.63 2.38 4.6 3.0 15.1 6.9 dietetic pasta for diabetics (with INULIN) 100% wholemeal semolina 4.5 3.6 Commercial * data expressed as % db; all analyses in duplicate

14 III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components Cooking behaviour of pasta Leaching of FOS after cooking before cooking after cooking DISADVANTAGE OF DRIED PASTA DECREASE OF BENEFITS APPORTED BY ENRICHEMENT WITH IWG DISPITE THE LEACHING OF FOS INTO THE COOKING WATER, ENRICHED PASTA HAS A HIGHER FOS CONTENT THAN CORRESPONDING REFERENCE SAMPLE EVALUATION OF COOKING QUALITY 65 WHOLEMEAL PASTA 56 DIETETIC PASTA 69 30% IWG HT 69 100% sem HT 63 30% IWG LT 61 100% sem LT TOTAL SCORE * SAMPLE OPTIMAL COOKING TIME (min) 8.30 8.00 11.30 8.30 8.00 8.30 * TOTAL SCORE 10 low quality –100 high quality according to D’Egidio et al., 1993 FIRMNESS STICKINESSBULKINESS 65 88 68 73 60 73 60 20 70 68 60 55 70 60 70 65 70 55 30% IWG LT DIETETIC PASTA

15 “IN VITRO ” STARCH DIGESTION according to Brighenti et al., 1995 COOKED SPAGHETTI at optimal cooking time SIMULATION OF CHEWING portion of food containg 2g of available carbohydratesmixed with 5ml 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.9) containing 10 mm NaCl and 25 U of human salivary  amylase gram of starch SIMULATION OF STOMACH DIGESTION acidification with HCl 8 M pH 2.0 digestion at 37°C with hog pepsine per gram of starch 1 h 5 min SIMULATION OF SMALL INTESTINE DIGESTION correction of pH from 2.0 to 6.9 with NaOH 8 M mixture was placed in DIALYSIS BAGS with hog pancreatine 50 U per gram of starch and to simulate peristalsis a glass ball was inserted into the tube and used to mix the content of the tube every 15 min 5 h bags were suspended in separate sealed containers filled with 450 ml of phosphate buffer at 37°C every 30 min 1 ml sample of dialysate was taken for analysisof total dialysable reducing sugars by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method TIME OF ANALYSIS STEPS III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

16 “ IN VITRO STARCH DIGESTION” EFFECT OF IWG ADDITION 100% semolina LT 30% IWG LT GROWING AWARENESS FOR FOOD WITH LOW STARCH DIGESTIBILITY III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components 100% semolina LT 30% IWG LT WHOLEMEAL PASTA PASTA for diabetics COMPARISON WITH COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Pasta enriched with IWG was characterized by a lower starch availability than the corrisponding 100% semolina Pasta enriched with IWG had a % of available starch lower than the product for diabetics

17 III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components Glycemix Index The Glycemic Index (GI) is defined as the incremental area under blood glucose response curve (AUC) elicited by a portion of food containing 50 g available carbohydrate expressed as the percent of AUC elicited by 50 g of glucose taken by the same subjects. METHOD 0;15;30;45;60;90;120 min: finger prick blood samples (glucose determination: YSI 2000 STAT Glucose Analyser) 7 meals:  3 standard meals (500 ml water + 50 g glucose)  4 spaghetti meals N° subjects = 10 (5 men; 5 women) Range Mean ± semCharacteristics Age (years) Weight (kg) Height (m) BMI (kg/m 2 ) Basal glycemia (mg/dl) 25,8 ± 0,5 66.4 ± 4.39 1.74 ± 0,03 21,7 ± 0,8 75,7 ± 8,8 20,1 - 26,6 22 - 28 51 - 87 1,60 - 1,87 63 - 90

18 NO DIFFERENCES IN GLYCEMIC INDEX AMONG PRODUCTS III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components GLYCEMIC INDEX POST-PRANDIAL GLUCOSE RESPONSE The post-prandial glucose response was similar among pasta meals, showing a peak value at 30 min and a return to baseline values within 2 hours, with no significant differences in blood glucose concentration at any given time points. The calculated GI values of experimental pasta resulted slightly higher but not significantly different than those evaluated for commercial products. similar post-prandial blood glucose responses among pasta meals

19 CONCLUSIONS DRIED PASTA ENRICHED WITH IWG ACCEPTABLE COOKING QUALITY PRODUCT OF MEDIUM-LOW GLICEMIC INDEX HIGH FOS CONTENT BUT LEACHING OF THESE MOLECULES DURING COOKING III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components FRESH PASTA ENRICHED WITH IWG (short cooking time) REDUCTION OF FOS LEACHING DURING COOKING WORK IN PROGRESS DRIED AND FRESH PASTA ENRICHED WITH PRE- COOKED IWG FLOUR REDUCTION OF STARCH DIGESTIBILITY PASTA WITH LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX

20 III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components Gabriella Bottega Carolina Palandi Chiara Balansino Stefania Iametti Franco Bonomi Thank you!

21 “IN VITRO ” STARCH DIGESTION according to Brighenti et al., 1995 COOKED SPAGHETTI at optimal cooking time SIMULATION OF CHEWING portion of food containg 2g of available carbohydratesmixed with 5ml 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.9) containing 10 mm NaCl and 25 U of human salivary  amylase gram of starch SIMULATION OF STOMACH DIGESTION acidification with HCl 8 M pH 2.0 digestion at 37°C with hog pepsine per gram of starch 1 h 5 min SIMULATION OF SMALL INTESTINE DIGESTION correction of pH from 2.0 to 6.9 with NaOH 8 M mixture was placed in DIALYSIS BAGS with hog pancreatine 50 U per gram of starch and to simulate peristalsis a glass ball was inserted into the tube and used to mix the content of the tube every 15 min 5 h bags were suspended in separate sealed containers filled with 450 ml of phosphate buffer at 37°C every 30 min 1 ml sample of dialysate was taken for analysisof total dialysable reducing sugars by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method The amount of released reducing sugars (consisting of dialysed fragments of digested starch plus the native reducing sugars) was expressed in maltose equivalent and as percentage of total available carbohydrates after adjustment for the rate of sugars diffusion RESULTS TIME OF ANALYSIS STEPS III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

22 FOS DETERMINATION PRELIMINARY EXTRACTION WITH ETHANOL 95% 1 h at 80°C WATER EXTRACTION 2 h at 105°C FRUCTOSE CONTENT GLUCOSE CONTENT ENZYMATIC PROCEDURE (GOPOD) CHEMICAL PROCEDURE (resorcine-HCl) ethanolic extract FRUCTAN FRUCTOSE CONTENT GLUCOSE CONTENT ENZYMATIC PROCEDURE (GOPOD) CHEMICAL PROCEDURE (resorcine-HCl) SOLUBLE SUGARS residual according to D’Egidio et al., 1993 enzymatic attach III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

23 FOS DETERMINATION SAMPLE boiling water 10 min at 85°C EXTRACTION DISSOLUTION sugar analysis 1 HYDROLYSIS amyloglucosidase 30 min at 60°C sugar analysis 2 HYDROLYSIS fructozyme 30 min at 60°C sugar analysis 3 AOAC 1995 Revision March 1998 where K= conversion factor Glucose= from inulin = glucose from Hydrolisis II - Glucose from Hydrolisis I- Glucose in free sugar - glucose from disaccharides in free sugar (saccarose and maltose). Fructose= from inulin = fructose from Hydrolisis II - fructose in free sugar - fructose from disaccharides in free sugar (saccarose) Inulin= K (Glucose + Fructose) III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

24 FRESH PASTA : TAGLIATELLE SHAPE 30% IWG and 70% semolina Formulation: 100% semolina (REFERENCE SAMPLE) 100% semolina 30% IWG +70% semolina moisture = 30% sfoglia thickness = 2mm 2 CYCLES OF PASTEURIZATION 95°C 1 min before packaging 100°C 45 min after packaging LABORATORY PLANT SCALE PASTA- PRODUCTS DOUGH D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

25 FRESH PASTA CHARACTERIZATION DRIED PASTAFRESH PASTA BROWN INDEX 30% IWG 100% semolina before cooking after cooking 100% SEMOLINA30% IWG Leaching of FOS after cooking PROCESSES Cumulative volume (mm 3 /g) POROSITY (%) COOKING TIME (min) Pressure- extrudedpasta 26.953.758 –11 Role-sheeted pasta 51.226.941 -2 the more porose the structure, the more available the starch 30 mg /100g protein 112 mg /100g protein FUROSINE LEVEL HIGHER % OF DIGESTED STARCH THAN DRIED PASTA 100% semolina 30% IWG 30% IWG LT “IN VITRO “STARCH DIGESTION 100% semolina LT III PASTA WORLD CONGRESS, 23 rd – 26 th October 2005 D’ Egidio et al. New development for pasta products:immature wheat and functional components

26 TOTAL PROTEIN


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