Presentation on theme: "Highlights Dr Mick Kumwenda MSc FRCP (London)"— Presentation transcript:
1Highlights Dr Mick Kumwenda MSc FRCP (London) Consultant Nephrologist and Clinical Director (Medicine)Glan Clwyd HospitalRhylDenbighshireUK
2PACDWe are delighted to present you with the highlights this year from yet again a very successful congress attended by 2003 multidisciplinary delegates from around the globe. We wish to thank all those who attended and hope you left the congress full of knowledge that made a difference when you returned back to your home base. We also thank all the speakers that contributed, the quality of all the papers was exceptional and we have selected a few slides with the kind permission of the presenters to summarise key messages from the congress.
3PACDThe PACD continues to serve the diabetes health care providers in the Middle East as an academic forum for the exchange of knowledge, training and experience. Conference chair : Sherif Hafez Vice chairs: Mohamed Fahmy Abdel-Aziz Megahed Abou El-Magd Assistant Secretary General: Gamela Nasr Hyam Refaat Tantawi
5Type 2 diabetesType 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disorder that is affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Existing genetic markers explain only a modest (15%) part of the heritability of T2D.
6EpigeneticsEpigenetics has been defined as heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the nucleotide sequence. i e Non -sequence dependent inheritance
7Key Enzymes in epigenetics It has recently been suggested that glucose availability can affect histone acetylation in an ATP-citrate lyase-dependent manner, further linking energy metabolism to epigenetic regulation
9Immune cells and Modulation of Energy Balance The effectors of innate and adaptive immune cells implicated in maintaining energy balance include:- Macrophages(MQ)- T cells- Neutrophils- Dendritic cells(DCs)- Mast cells (MCs)- Eosinophil's- Natural Killer (NK ) cells- Natural killer T(NKT) cells
10Cooperation between brain and islet in glucose homeostasis and diabetes The BCGS is proposed to regulate tissue glucose metabolism and plasma glucose levels via mechanisms that are both insulin dependent (for example, by regulating tissue insulin sensitivity) and insulin independent. Because of extensive redundancy between islet- and brain-centred pathways, dysfunction of both may be required for T2D to develop, and diabetes remission may be possible with therapies that target both pathways.If insulin-independent glucose disposal is subject to rapid and potent regulation by the brain, it is not clear why neural control of GE has not been detected previously. One explanation may be that previous studies have relied on methods that are not optimized to detect GE. Chief among these is the euglyaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp method, considered by many to be the gold standard for quantitative, in vivo assessment of glucose metabolism. With this method, insulin sensitivity is measured as the amount of exogenous glucose that must be infused to maintain stable (or ‘clamped’) blood glucose concentrations when insulin levels are raised.Consequently, experimental interventions that change the amount of glucose required during the clamp are interpreted as having changed insulin sensitivity, despite the fact that some of the infused glucose could have been disposed of by insulin-independent mechanisms. Thus, one cannot know with certainty the extent to which observations based on the clamp method are due to changes in insulin-independent glucose disposal instead of, or in addition to, changes of insulin sensitivity. This limitation can be addressed using a complementary approach based on minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin kinetics during an intravenous glucose tolerance test. This method has seen broad use in clinical research39, 42, 44 and was recently used to reveal the potent stimulatory effect of centrally infused FGF19 on GE in ob/ob mice5.(Schwartz, M.W. et al., 2013)
12Obesity and life expectancy January 2003 Life Table analysis of Framingham DataObese at 40 live 6 to 7 years less than normalOverweight at 40 live 3 years less than normalObese smoker live 14 years less than normal
15Understanding natural history of type 2 diabetes and targeted therapies
16Dual defect of type 2 diabetes: treating a moving target InsulinResistanceType 2Diabetesb-cellDysfunctionHyperglycaemiaInsulin Actionb-cell FailureInsulinConcentrationInsulinResistanceDual defect of type 2 diabetes: treating a moving targetThe pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is complex, and characterised by remorseless progression of the dual metabolic defects of insulin resistance and b-cell dysfunction.Initially, insulin resistance causes the glucose-lowering actions of insulin to be blunted, so that the pancreas secretes more insulin to overcome the deficit. At this stage the subject may develop impaired glucose tolerance, but is not yet diabetic.As insulin resistance progresses, however, the pancreas is no longer able to secrete enough insulin to control glycaemia, and increased hepatic glucose output and reduced glucose disposal by muscle and fat contribute to the chronic fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Eventually, insulin secretion from the b-cell begins to decline and the severity of the hyperglycaemia increases further.Adapted from DeFronzo RA, Bonadonna RC, Ferrannini E. Pathogenesis of NIDDM. A balanced overview. Diabetes Care 1992;15:EuglycaemiaNormalIGT ± ObesityDiagnosis of type 2 diabetesProgression of type 2 diabetesDeFronzo et al. Diabetes Care 1992;15:318-68
17Guiding principles for nutrition education Patients are responsiblePatients are therefore the final decision-makersKnowing what is best for diabetes, is not the same as knowing what is best for that patientThese principles have re-defined how we provide educationBoth structured education and one to one approach benefits patients.
18Trials to Prevent / Delay Progression From IGT to Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle ChangesMalmo StudyDa Qing StudyFinnish Diabetes Prevention StudyDiabetes Prevention ProgramMedicationsDiabetes Prevention Program: metforminTRIPOD: troglitazonePIPOD: pioglitazoneSTOP-NIDDM: acarboseNAVIGATOR: nateglinide and valsartanDREAM: rosiglitazone and ramiprilXENDOS: orlistatORIGIN: glargine insulinACT NOW: pioglitazoneSeveral trials in the prevention of diabetes with life style modification or drug treatment have either reported results or are ongoing.TRIPOD=Troglitazone in Prevention of Diabetes Study; PIPOD= Pioglitazone in Prevention of Diabetes Study;STOP-NIDDM=Study to Prevent Non–Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; NAVIGATOR=Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research; DREAM=Diabetes Reduction Approaches with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone; XENDOS=Xenical in the Prevention of Diabetes in Obese Subjects; ORIGIN=Outcomes Reduction with Initial Glargine Introduction.
19ADA/EASD position statement 2012 Towards personalized glycaemic targets
20ADA. V. Diabetes Care. Diabetes Care 2014;37(suppl 1):S27 ADA. V. Diabetes Care. Diabetes Care 2014;37(suppl 1):S27. Figure 2; adapted with permission from Inzucchi SE, et al. Diabetes Care 2012;35:1364–1369
21The A1C and ABCDE of glycaemia management in type 2 diabetes: a physician's personalized approach. AGE (years)15-4040-70>70COMPLICATIONSDURATION>10yrs-+-+-+HbA1c (%)<6<6.5<6.56.5-7<77-8HbA1c≥ 9%Insulin treatmentHbA1c< 9%METFORMINPozzilli P, Leslie RD, Chan J, De Fronzo R, Monnier L, Raz I, Del Prato S.The A1C and ABCD of glycaemia management in type 2 diabetes: a physician's personalized approach. Diabetes Metab Res Rev May;26(4):2121
22Diabetes duration (years) Insulin initiation is often delayed in type 2 diabetes despite high HbA1cINITIATEplus40.06.57.07.58.08.59.09.510.0Baseline HbA1c (%)INITIATE1EuroMix29.2%IMPROVETM 39.7%9.9%170759.5%10.37.47.7- -9.1%Note: Results shown from insulin-naïve subjectsINITIATE: Raskin et al. Diabetes Care 2005EuroMix: Kann et al. Exp Clin Endo Diab 2006IMPROVE: Valensi et al. Int J Clin Pract 2009;63(3):522–31INITIATEplus: Oyer et al. Am J Med 20091707: Yang et al. (2008) – Baseline HbA1c reflects BIAsp 30 BIDA1chieveEgyptsub-group8.6Diabetes duration (years)Raskin et al. Diabetes Care 2005;28:260–5Kann et al. Exp Clin Endo Diab 2006; 114:527–32Valensi et al. Int J Clin Pract 2009;63:522–31Oyer et al. Am J Med 2009;122:1043–9Yang et al. Diabetes Care 2008;31:852–6
23Improvement of glycaemic control in combination therapy Glycated Hb reduction vs insulin alone- 0.4%- 1.3%RegimeInsulin and SU – 7 studiesInsulin and metformin – 4 studiesInsulin and TZD – 2 studiesYki Jarvinen H Diabetes Care :
24Be aware of hypoglycemia <3.5-4 mmol/L (<63-72 mg/dL)Whipple’s triad:SymptomsLow blood glucoseRelief of symptoms when blood glucose raisedHypoglycaemia, which literally means ‘low blood sugar’, can arise from many causes, and can occur at any age. The most common forms of moderate and severe hypoglycaemia occur as a complication of treatment of diabetes with insulin or oral medications.Endocrinologists typically consider the following criteria (known as Whipple's triad) as indicating that a person’s symptoms can be attributed to hypoglycaemia:The presence of symptoms known to be caused by hypoglycaemiaLow glucose at the time the symptoms occurReversal or improvement of symptoms when glucose levels are restored to normal.The definition is a level of 3.5 mmol/L (63 mg/dL). However, for practical purposes and for teaching, we usually talk about a cut-off point of below 4 mmol/L (72 mg/dL).
25COUNTER REGULATORY HORMONES: GLUCAGON, EPINEPHRINE, CORTISOL, GROWTH HORMONE Normal mechType 1Type 2As blood glucose levels drop, a counter-regulatory response is provoked in all of us. In people without diabetes, the normal counter-regulatory responses are as follows:When the blood glucose level is about 4.5 mmol/L (81 mg/dl) the secretion of endogenous insulin is suppressed. This does not happen in type 1 diabetes because injected insulin (exogenous) cannot be suppressed.At about 65–70 mg/dl (3.6 –3.9 mmol/l) the secretion of glucagon and epinephrine is increased – releasing stored glucose. This is followed by increases in cortisol and growth hormone. All these hormones are in effect trying to raise blood glucose.At about 3.1 mmol/L (55.8 mg/dl) autonomic (adrenergic) symptoms appear:Tremors in 32%-78% of peoplePalpitations in 8%-62%Sweating in 47%-84%Anxiety in 10%-44%Ravenous hunger in 39%-49%Nausea in 5%-20%Tingling especially around lips in 10%-39%.
26Hypoglycemia unawareness Glucagon response often lost after five years with type 1 diabetesEpinephrine response may be blunted and delayedAdrenergic symptoms bluntedReliance on recognizing neuroglycopenic symptomsWhy does this phenomenon occur?The glucagon response to hypoglycaemia in people with type 1 diabetes is lost after about five years of diabetes.If a person has repeated hypoglycaemic episodes, the action of epinephrine may be blunted or delayed. The adrenergic symptoms of hypoglycaemia are thus also blunted or delayed.It therefore becomes increasingly important for people to recognize neuroglycopenic symptoms.
28The proposed pathways by which GLP-1 may exert its cardiovascular Effects .
29Cardio protective potentials of DPP-4 inhibitors beyond their glucose-lowering action Balakumar P, et al. Cell Signal Sep;25(9):
30197 studies identifiedMetformin was well tolerated, albeit with a trend towards increased hypoglycaemia. Formal estimates of combined effects from the five trials which reported appropriate data indicated a significant reduction in insulin dose (6.6 U/day, p<0.001) but no significant reduction in HbA1c (absolute reduction 0.11%, p=0.42). No reported trials included cardiovascular outcomes12
31Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors in Type 1 DM Prevention of nocturnal hypoglycemia?Reduce postprandial hyperglycemiaRaju B, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab Jun;91(6):Riccardi G, et al. Diabet Med Mar;16(3):13
32Thiazolidinediones in Type 1 DM Potential insulin sparing role in overweight patients with type 1 diabetes.Mixed effects on progression of diabetes reportedStrowig SM, Raskin P. Diabetes Care Jul;28(7):Shimada A, et al. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011 Nov;27(8):951Yang Z, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract Jan;83(1):54-60.14
33Incretin-based Therapies in Early Type 1 DM Hari Kumar KV, Shaikh A, Prusty P. Diabetes Res Clin Pract May;100(2):e55-82
34Ramadan and glycaemic control Oral hypoglycemic agentsSUsUnsuitable for use during fasting because of the inherent risk ofHypoglycemia, use with caution. Consider dose adjustment.TZDsNo treatment adjustment required 2–4 weeks to exert substantial antihyperglycemic effectsMetforminModify timing of doses: Two thirds of dose at Iftar• One third at suhur.DPP4 inhibitorsThe best tolerated drugs, Consider DPP4i as an alternative to SUs if the risk of hypoglycemia is highShort actinginsulin SUsTake twice daily at suhur and iftarE Hui et al , BMJ, 26 june 2010 , Volume 340; Al-Arouj M. et al, Recommendations for management of diabetes during Ramadan. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:
35Don’t miss MODY! Genetic Testing for MODY Who should be tested?MODY misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes and sometimes type 1 diabetes.Mutations can be inherited (commonly) or de novo (rarely).What genes should be tested?Most common causes of MODY are mutations in GCK, HNF1A and HNF4A.Is genetic testing good healthcare policy?Change from expensive therapy to cheaper therapy – saves money.If you have a GCK mutation, you DO NOT have type 2 diabetes and you do not need any drugs or a diabetes doctor!MonogenicDiabetes.org
38OASIS Study Mortality by Diabetes and CVD Status Diabetes/CVD (n=1,148)RR=2.88 ( )No Diabetes/CVD (n=3,503)Diabetes/No CVD (n=569)No Diabetes/No CVD (n=2,796)RR=1.99 ( )Event rateRR=1.71 ( )RR=1.003691215182124MonthsOASIS=Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic SyndromesMalmberg K, et al. Circulation. 2000;102:
39State of the art lecture in memory of Prof Zakarya El BAZ Diabetic Nephropathy by Prof Sherif Hafez Dr Mick Kumwenda
40Definitions – based on quantification Micro albuminuria - dipstick negative> 2.5 mg/mmol males> 3.5 mg/mmol femalesmg/dayMacrolbuminuria – dipstick positive> 25 mg/mmol both males and females> 300mg/day – diabetic nephropathy(low serum albumin = nephrotic syndromeCan be proteinuria negative in type 2+/- e GFR < 60ml/min
41Diabetic Nephropathy: pathological classification Class 1 – EM proven GBM thickeningClass 2a – Mild mesangial expansionClass 2b – Severe mesangial expansionClass 3 - Nodular sclerosis ( KW lesions)Class 4 - Advanced sclerosis ( > 50% glomeruli)Tervaert TC et al J Am Soc Nephrol 2010 online
42CURRENT CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD) NOMENCLATURE USED BY KDIGO CKD is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for >3 months, with implications for health and CKD is classified based on cause, GFR category, and albuminuria category (CGA).Prognosis of CKD by GFRand Albuminuria Categories:KDIGO 2012Persistent albuminuria categoriesDescription and rangeA1A2A3Normal tomildlyincreasedModeratelySeverely<30 mg/g<3 mg/mmolmg/g3-30 mg/mmol>300 mg/g>30 mg/mmolPreviously micro-albuminuriaPreviously macro-albuminuriaGFR categories (ml/min/ 1.73 m²)Description and rangeG1Normal or high≥90G2Mildly decreased60-89G3aMildly to moderatelydecreased45-59G3bModerately toseverely decreased30-44G4Severely decreased15-29G5Kidney failure<15Green: low risk (if no other markers of kidney disease, no CKD); Yellow: moderately increased risk; Orange: high risk; Red, very high risk.KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3: Accessed February 26, 2013
43Although we understand the natural history of diabetic kidney disease some patients with type 2 diabetes progress to end stage kidney disease without developing proteinuria
44Nonalbuminuric Renal Insufficiency in Type 2 Diabetes, MacIsaac 2004 A cross-sectional survey of 301 outpatients attending a single tertiary referral center using the plasma disappearance of isotopic 99mTc-diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid to measure GFR and at least two measurements of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) over 24 h to determine albuminuria.Conclusion: patients with type 2 diabetes can commonly progress to a significant degree of renal impairment while remaining normoalbuminuric.MacIsaac et al, Diabetes Care Jan;27(1):
45Blood Pressure Target Goals in CKD patients CHEP 2014 (BP target)¹Target Blood pressure Should be less than 140/90 mmHg in most patients, including those with chronic kidney disease.ESC 2013 (BP target)²Target Blood pressure <140/90 mmHg should be considered in patients with diabetic or non-diabetic CKD.JNC IV (BP target)³In patients with CKD, initiate treatment at SBP ≥140 mmHg or DBP ≥90 mmHg, and treat to achieve SBP <140 mmHg and DBP <90 mmHg.1: Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) 2014 Recommendation, adopted from: https://www.hypertension.ca/chep. Accessed at 5/2/20142: Mancia G, et al. J Hypertens Jul;31(7):3: James PA, et al. JAMA Dec 18. [Epub ahead of print]
46ACE inhibitors in Hypertensive diabetic patients
47Weight loss Exercise Smoking cessation BP & Lipid targets Intensive group n=80Weight lossExerciseSmoking cessationBP & Lipid targetsAspirin, Statin, ACEICV morbidity & mortality -50%Compared to usual diabetic care8 years follow upProgression to proteinuria -60%We highlighted early on the CVD risk increase in both types of DM with nephropathy. Aggressive CV risk factor management is vital and will also reduce the progression of renal disease and other diabetic complications of diabetes. In a small study in type 2 diabetics with micro albuminuria patients were randomised to usual diabetic care or Intensive care. The intensive group followed a protocol driven intensive life style and medical intervention regimenProgression to Retinopathy -60%Gaede P et al. Multifactorial intervention , N Engl J Med 2003; 348:
48Steno-2 Trial: multiple risk factor intervention in T2DM Steno-2: Number needed to treatNumber of microalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes needed to treat for 13 years to prevent one …..Death patientsCardiovascular death patientsMajor cardiovascular event patientsProgression to nephropathy 5 patientsDialysis patientsLaser treatment 7 patientsSteno-2 Trial: multiple risk factor intervention in T2DM
51Caution : ACEi or ARB in combination with RENIN inhibitor ALTITUDE – Murray JJ Eur J Heart Fail (4) 341-3Aliskerin 300mg increased urinary albumin excretionDual caused reduction of e GFRStroke placebo 85 Aliskerin 112Study discontinued
52Diabetic Kidney disease guidelines CKD 1-2CKD 3-4Same as CKD1-2CKD group education:-Bone mineral disease- phosphorus mg/day- salt intake <6g/day- anaemia Hb 10-12g/dl- ferritin >100ng/mlPreparation for renal replacement therapy including transplantationLife style modificationProtein intake 0.8g/kgTreat all risk factorsHbA1C <7%BP < 140/80Refer to Nephrologist :-rapid progressors- nephrotic syndrome- haematuria- e GFR < 40ml/min
53Can we identify patients at risk using biomarkers? Microalbuminuria remains the gold standard Other candidate markers associated with microalbuminuria or low e GFR: - Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) - Kidney Injury Molecule 1(KIM 1), -Transforming Growth Factor Beta -Cystitis C -Tumour Necrosis Factor -oocytes Adipocytokinine Zinc alpha 2 glyco protein (ZAG) in non-albuminurics
54Meta-analysis in primary prevention 2009 ASA and diabetes
55Meta-analysis in primary prevention 2009 ASA and diabetes: Total mortality
56Efficacy of Antiplatelet Therapies in ACS Results in the Diabetes Mellitus Subgroups (Adapted from Ferreiro JL et al. Circulation 2011; 123: )
57Diabetes and heart failure Current knowledge Piccini JP et al,Am J Med 2004: 116: 64s-75sTrost S, LeWinter M. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc med. 2001: 3:
64PACDDiabetes continues to be a global epidemic particularly effecting the Middle EastThe ultimate goal of the congress is to support thaw commitment of health professionals to fight against diabetes.We hope you have gained more knowledge yet again this year and see you again at PACD in Cairo.