Presentation on theme: "Welcome Back!. “Bad reasoning as well as good reasoning is possible; and this fact is the foundation of the practical side of logic.” - Charles Sanders."— Presentation transcript:
“Bad reasoning as well as good reasoning is possible; and this fact is the foundation of the practical side of logic.” - Charles Sanders Peirce
On the Radar Researching the Persuasive Speech Assignment Due Wednesday on WebCT (by 11:59 p.m.) Exam Two This Friday in Lecture Study Guide on Course Website Workshops for the Persuasive Speech Start Monday (first three speaking days)
Using Models of Reasoning A Return to Logos
Reasoning from Specific Instances Progressing from a number of particular facts to a general conclusion.
FACT ONE: President Obama supported the American Recovery and Investment Act to allot $5 billion for early learning programs. FACT TWO: President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate Campaign to enhance American students’ performance in key areas of science and math. FACT THREE: President Obama endorsed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act to invest more in higher education programs like community college. CONCLUSION: President Obama values education.
Reasoning from Specific Instances Use in Speech: FACT ONE: I have done a lot of research on blood donation. FACT TWO: I have personally donated blood. FACT THREE: I sit with my grandma through her weekly dialysis appointments. CONCLUSION: I am credible to talk on the topic of blood donation.
Reasoning from Specific Instances What to look out for: Avoid hasty generalizations. Be careful with your wording (avoid absolutes). Provide additional evidence (statistics or testimony).
Reasoning from Principle Progressing from a general principle to a specific conclusion. Example: GENERAL PRINCIPLE: All fruits grow on trees. MINOR PREMISE: Apples are fruits. CONCLUSION: Apples grow on trees.
Reasoning from Principle Use in Speech: GENERAL PRINCIPLE: The Children’s Miracle Network funds hundreds of hospitals that offer care specifically to children. MINOR PREMISE: Sarah has been a patient at a Children’s Miracle Network hospital for over six months. CONCLUSION: Your donation to the Children’s Miracle Network could benefit children just like Sarah.
Causal Reasoning Establishing a relationship between cause and effect Example: CAUSE: The winter of 2010 yielded record snow falls in the Midwest. EFFECT: The large volume of snow increased river levels which ultimately led many cities to flood.
Causal Reasoning What to look out for: Avoid the post hoc fallacy. Don’t assume that events only have one cause. Use in Speech: EFFECT: Obesity rates in America are alarmingly high. CAUSE: Studies have shown that a lack of exercise contributes greatly to the problem of obesity.
Analogical Reasoning Comparing two similar cases and assuming what is true of one should be true of the other. What to look out for: Make sure that the two cases are, in fact, similar.
Analogical Reasoning Example: If you enjoyed watching the first seven Harry Potter movies, chances are you will enjoy the final one coming out this summer.
Analogical Reasoning Use in Speech: A study done at the University of Iowa surveying 1500 college students found that 80% of students will take out a student loan some time throughout their time as an undergraduate. That means, that in this room, it is probable that at least sixteen of you are facing student loan date upon graduation.
Earning that Elusive *A* The Successful Speech
Earning that A “A superior (A) speech stands out from the crowd. It has superior content, excellent organization and distinctive delivery. In short, it represents the speaker’s best creative effort” (W p. 12).
The Rhetorical Canons Invention Arrangement Style Memory Delivery
Invention Choose your topic wisely. Is it manageable? Does it relate to the audience? What does your Lab Instructor say? Research your topic thoroughly. Do Wednesday’s assignment. Look for more than four sources. Make the most of Workshop. Come prepared. Respond and adapt to criticism.
Arrangement Choose an appropriate pattern of organization. Is it the best choice for your topic? Are you supporting your structure well? Use clear, creative connectives. Use terminology in your preview. Make the most of your Introduction. Use the elements of CARRP to your advantage. Make the most of your Conclusion. End on a good note.
Style Master the three appeals. Clarify complicated terminology. Be creative.
Memory Know your topic. Prepare your note cards in advance. Practice with your note cards. Know your visual aid!!!
Delivery Focus first on issues from the Informative Speech. Set reasonable goals. Practice in front of other people. Try the Speech Reflection assignment.
On the Radar Researching the Persuasive Speech Assignment Due Wednesday on WebCT (by 11:59 p.m.) Exam Two This Friday in Lecture Study Guide on Course Website Workshops for the Persuasive Speech Starts Monday (first three speaking days)