2What is the kidney?The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located in the middle of the back, just below the rib cage, on either side of the spine.
3What do the kidneys do?The kidneys are vital organs that regulate composition of the blood:Keep the blood clean and chemically balancedKeep the volume of water in the body constantRemove wastes from the body
4What do the kidneys do? They help regulate blood pressure Stimulate the making of red blood cellsMaintain the body’s calcium level
5UrineWhen kidneys are healthy, the artery (AR-ter-ee) brings blood and waste from the bloodstream into the kidney.Kidneys clean the blood. Then waste and extra fluid go out into the urine through the ureter.Clean blood leaves the kidney and goes back into the bloodstream through the vein.
6What are the signs of kidney disease? During early stages of kidneydisease, the patient maynot feel sickor feel anything at all
7What are the signs of kidney disease? If kidney disease gets worse, the patient may experience:Blood in urineCloudy or foamy urine
8What are the signs of kidney disease? If kidney disease gets worse, the patient may experience:Puffiness of eyelidsSwelling of hands or feetItching
9What are the signs of kidney disease? If kidney disease gets worse, the patient may experience:Feeling tiredDrowsiness or have trouble concentratingLoss of appetitevomiting
10Am I at risk for kidney diseases Do I have diabetes?Have I been told to haveprotein in the urineDo I have a family historyof kidney diseases?Do I have high bloodpressure?
11What medical tests will my doctor use to detect kidney disease? Since you can have kidney disease without any symptoms, your doctor may first detect the condition through routine blood and urine tests.
12The National Kidney Foundation recommends three simple tests to screen for kidney disease: a blood pressure measurementa spot check for protein or albumin in the urine (proteinuria)a calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on a serum creatinine measurement.
13What can I do about kidney disease? Unfortunately, chronic kidney disease often cannot be cured. But if you are in the early stages of a kidney disease, you may be able to make your kidneys last longer by taking certain steps.You will also want to be sure that risks for heart attack and stroke are minimized, since patients with kidney disease are susceptible to these problems.
14Steps to make your kidneys last longer If you have diabetes, watch your blood glucose closely to keep it under control. Consult your doctor for the latest in treatment.Avoid pain pills that may make your kidney disease worse. Check with your doctor before taking any medicine.
15Steps to make your kidneys last longer Keeping blood pressure under control helps to keep your kidneys healthy.
16What happens if my kidneys fail? One way to treat kidney failure is with dialysis.Dialysis is a treatment that does the work your kidneys used to do.Dialysis is a treatment that takes waste products and extra fluid out of your body.There are two types of dialysis.
17HemodialysisIn hemodialysis, your blood flows through a tube from your arm to a machine that filters out the waste products and extra fluid. The clean blood flows back to your arm.
18Peritoneal dialysisIn peritoneal dialysis, your belly is filled with a special fluid. The fluid collects waste products and extra water from your blood. Then the fluid is drained from your belly and thrown away.
19Another way to treat kidney failure is to do kidney transplantation. A donated kidney may come from an anonymous donor who has recently died or from a living person, usually a relative.The kidney that you receive must be a good match for your body.
20What should I do to stay healthy? Follow the healthy eating plan that you and your doctor or dietitian have worked out.Limit intake of salt
21What should I do to stay healthy? Be active a total of 30 minutes most days. Ask your doctor what activities are best for you.
22What should I do to stay healthy? Take your prescribed medicines as directed.Avoid taking pain pills regularly and other unprescribed medicines.Check with your doctor before taking any medicines
23What should I do to stay healthy? Control your blood pressure and cholesterol
25What should I do to stay healthy? See a doctor for bladder or kidney infections right away. You may have an infection if you have these symptoms:pain or burning when you urinatefrequent urge to go to the bathroomurine that looks cloudy or reddishfever or a shaky feelingpain in your back or on your side below your ribs
27The following should raise suspicion of kidney disease Swelling of legs and puffy eyelidsHigh blood pressure (esp. in young)Waking up at night to urinatePainful urinationPainless blood in the urineSandy material in the urineColicky pain in the flank area - foamy urine
28Ways of preventing kidney disease 1. Keep your blood pressure normal < 120/802. Know your family history - anyone in family on dialysis - Diabetes - Hypertension - Gout - Passage of stone3. Maintain a healthy diet4. Control your weight
29The Philippine College of Physicians wishes to acknowledge the following for her invaluable efforts in the preparation of this moduleRuth Lampa, MD