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5. The Large Intestine/Colon - These substances pass into appendix, a small saclike organ Clogged and inflamed = appendicitis. Removal needed. Large Intestine.

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Presentation on theme: "5. The Large Intestine/Colon - These substances pass into appendix, a small saclike organ Clogged and inflamed = appendicitis. Removal needed. Large Intestine."— Presentation transcript:

1 5. The Large Intestine/Colon - These substances pass into appendix, a small saclike organ Clogged and inflamed = appendicitis. Removal needed. Large Intestine long x 5 cm wide - removes water from undigested material Bacteria in colon produce needed compounds, including Vitamin K. Antibiotics can destroy these beneficial bacteria. (Eat yogurt!) Next - eliminate wastes. Go out rectum and anus = feces Disorders: Diarrhea - not enough water is absorbed. Constipation - too much water is absorbed - stays in colon too long.(Eat fiber!) Colon polyps or cancer

2 Food and Nutrition - Some basic facts Food gives you energy (fuel) When you eat, you break down the food into sugar glucose (+ others), then convert it into ATP When you burn your food using ATP (respiration), the energy is converted to heat which is measured in calories calorie = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius We use kilocalorie (= 1000 calories) or Calorie Ex: Lab: Calorimetry

3 Nutrients - substances in food which supply energy and materials your body uses for growth, repair, and maintenance 6 types: Water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals. 1. Water - all body’s processes and chemical reactions take place in water 2. Carbohydrates - energy source: Ex: fruits, vegetables, grains. Get broken down into glucose, fructose, galactose. Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides 3. Fats (Lipids) - store energy, make cell membranes, hormones Ex: Butter & animal fats = (saturated/solid/single bonds between the C atoms.) Ex: Vegetable oils = (unsaturated/liquids/at least 1 double bond, or many = polyunsaturated). Get broken down into fatty acids & glycerol. Fat Rec: Max. of 30% Calories from fat, only 10% from saturated fats. Risks: high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity, diabetes. How much fat??

4 4. Proteins - growth, repair, regulatory. Get broken down into amino acids. Ex: Meat, fish, eggs, milk. 5. Vitamins-regulate body processes, work with enzymes. Ex: Fat soluble (stored) = A,D,E,K. Water soluble (not stored)= C,B. 6. Minerals - inorganic nutrients needed in small amounts. Ex: Calcium, iron, sodium, potassium. See next slide for an overview of nutrients.next slide Ex: Vitamin B-12: Deficiency = anemia, nervous system disorders Found in: Meats, eggs, dairy products

5 include such as are made ofinclude 5 Nutrients includeare made using Section 38-1 Nutrients CarbohydratesFatsMineralsProteinsVitamins SimpleComplex Amino acids CalciumIron Fatty AcidsGlycerol SugarsStarchesFat-soluble Water- soluble Q: What is the 6th type of nutrient missing from this chart? A: Water!

6 Q: What balance of these nutrients should we eat? A: Scientists made a Food Pyramid that classifies foods into 6 groups, & shows how many servings from each group should be eaten every day. See next slide!Food Pyramid

7 Fats Sugars Fats, Oils, and Sweets (use sparingly) Soft drinks, candy, ice cream, mayonnaise, and other foods in this group have relatively few valuable nutrients. Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group (2-3 Servings) Milk and other dairy products are rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nut Group (2-3 servings) These foods are high in protein. They also supply vitamins and minerals. Vegetable Group (3-5 servings) Vegetables are a low-fat source of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Fruit Group (2-4 servings) Fruits are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and water. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group (6-11 servings) The foods at the base of the pyramid are rich in complex carbohydrates and also provide proteins, fiber, vitamins, and some minerals. Food Guide Pyramid Section 38-1

8 Q: How do you know what is in the food that you eat? A: Read the Nutritional Food Labels- see below:

9 Q: What is the best way for an average person to lose weight? A: No liquid or crash diets; lose weight slowly over time. Cut down Calories including carbohydrates and fats, get exercise. If you lose weight too fast, it may be water weight, and you will gain it all back. (Ex: Yo-yo dieting.) Teen problems - losing too much weight can stunt your growth, even permanently! Need to eat a balanced diet. Problems: anorexia and bulimia

10 The Excretory System

11 How Do We Excrete Our Liquid Wastes? Every cell in the body produces metabolic wastes: excess salts, CO 2, urea Urea - toxic compound produced when AA. are used for energy. Excretion - eliminating metabolic wastes. Organs involved: a.skin (water, salts, urea (sweat) b.lungs (CO 2 gas) c. liver -converts poisonous nitrogenous wastes into urea d. kidneys - principal organs of excretion. Remove urea from the bloodstream; maintain blood pH; regulate water content of blood, maintain homeostasis..

12 Kidneys - 2,located near lower back. Unfiltered blood enters kidney through renal artery. Kidney removes urea, excess water, waste products, passes them to ureter. Ureter- tube which leaves each kidney. Carries urine to bladder. Urinary bladder - saclike organ where urine is stored before being excreted Clean, filtered blood leaves kidney through renal vein, returns to circulation. This system is also called “The Urinary System” or tract“The Urinary System” or tract

13 Kidney (Cross Section) Cortex Medulla Vein Artery Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra The Urinary System Section 38-3

14 Kidney Structure - cross section (cut kidney in half) Inner part = Renal medulla Outer part = Renal cortex Functional units = nephrons, located in renal cortex, except for loops of Henle. Microscopic, 1,000,000 per kidney. Each has its own blood supply: arteriole, venule, capillaries. Blood enters nephron through arteriole, impurities are filtered out and are emptied into collecting duct. Purified blood exits nephron through venule. Click to enlarge

15 Close-up: The Kidney

16 2 Processes of blood purification: 1. Filtration - takes place in glomerulus, a network of capillaries at beginning of nephron. Encased by a hollow, cup-shaped structure called Bowman’s capsule. Filtration slidenephron.Filtration slide Going into nephron, blood is under pressure; much of fluid from blood flows into Bowman’s capsule = filtrate. Filtrate contains water, urea, glucose, salts, amino acids,some vitamins. Too large particles do not go into capsule, thus remain in blood: proteins, cells, platelets. Kidneys filter all body’s blood every 45 minutes 2. Reabsorption - Not all of filtrate is excreted; most gets back into blood. When liquid is taken back into a vessel = reabsorption. Ex: amino acids, fats, glucose, water Urine = material that remains (urea, excess salts & water), concentrated in loop of Henle. Purified blood is returned to circulation. Urine is collected in urinary bladder, then released through urethra = Excretion.

17 Kidney Nephron Cortex Medulla Renal artery Renal vein Ureter To the bladder Bowman’s capsule Glomerulus Capillaries Collecting duct To the ureter Loop of Henle Artery Vein Section 38-3 The Kidney and Nephron

18 Filtration Most filtration occurs in the glomerulus. Blood pressure forces water, salt, glucose, amino acids, and urea into Bowman’s capsule. Proteins and blood cells are too large to cross the membrane; they remain in the blood. The fluid that enters the renal tubules is called the filtrate. Reabsorption As the filtrate flows through the renal tubule, most of the water and nutrients are reabsorbed into the blood. The concentrated fluid that remains is called urine. The Nephron Section 38-3 Q: Should glucose be in the urine? A: No. It could be a sign of diabetes.

19 The nephron - a summary

20 Q: Can you live with your kidneys? Without 1 kidney? Q: Why do athletes get urine tests? A: Drugs generally remain in filtrate and are eliminated in urine.Urine testing is now done routinely to check for presence of prohibited drugs. Also used to screen job applicants. Q: What are kidney stones? A: Calcium, magnesium, uric acid salts crystallize and form kidney stones. Block ureter, cause pain. Treatment: ultrasound waves. Q: What is dialysis?dialysis? A:Blood is removed from body pumped through tubing that acts like nephrons, wastes are removed, purified blood returns to body. Option: Kidney transplant Dialysis

21 Vein Artery Shunt Air detector Dialysis machine Blood pump Blood in tubing flows through dialysis fluid Used dialysis fluid Compressed air Fresh dialysis fluid Kidney Dialysis Sectio 38-3


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