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Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys

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Presentation on theme: "Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys"— Presentation transcript:

1 Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys
Urine for a Great Time!!!

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3 Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys
Waste removal Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys Several organs are important in removing waste from the body. The lungs remove carbon dioxide. The liver converts excess protein into urea. The skin provides a surface for small amounts of water and salt to move out of the body. The kidneys remove unwanted substances such as urea, excess water and salt.

4 Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys
What is urea? Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys Excess amino acids in the body are broken down by the liver, producing a waste substance called urea. This process is important because it converts toxic ammonia to urea, which is done using carbon dioxide. Once formed, urea is transported by the circulatory system to the kidneys. The kidneys filter the blood, removing urea and excess water and salt, which forms urine. Urine is stored in the bladder before being excreted from the body. Teacher notes The kidneys typically filter about 1,500 litres of blood every day.

5 What are the different parts of a kidney?
Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys

6 How does the kidney work?
Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys Teacher notes Stage 1: Filtration occurs as an increased blood pressure forces smaller substances through the capillary wall into the Bowman’s capsule. The glomerulus is a ball of blood vessels Stage 2: In the first coiled tubule (proximal convoluted tubule) most reabsorption is by active transport. The cells of the first coiled tubule are packed with mitochondria, and have large brush borders to increase the surface area for reasborption. Stage 3 & 4: Substances move out of the loop on Henle by passive diffusion. The cells of the loop of Henle are thin, with no brush border and relatively few mitochondria. Stage 5: The collecting duct carries water to the ureter.

7 Stages in the nephron

8 Controlling water levels
Boardworks A2 Biology Homeostasis Osmoregulation is the process by which organisms regulate the water content of the body. Mammals need to ensure the volume of blood plasma and concentration of dissolved substances in the blood and tissue fluid stay relatively constant. Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus monitor the water potential of the blood. This varies the amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) released into the bloodstream. The kidneys respond to a change in ADH concentration by adjusting the volume and concentration of the urine.

9 Boardworks A2 Biology Homeostasis
Osmoregulation Boardworks A2 Biology Homeostasis change detected by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus pituitary gland releases more ADH ADH increases permeability of collecting ducts must conserve water decrease in water potential normal water potential of blood concentrated urine dilute urine increase in water potential must expel excess water decrease in permeability of collecting ducts Teacher notes High concentrations of ADH in the blood also induce the feeling of thirst in the animal. This helps to increase the body’s water content. change detected by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus pituitary gland releases less ADH

10 Controlling water content

11 Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys
Analysing urine Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys Changes in the color, clarity, pH and the presence of certain substances in urine can help doctors diagnose medical conditions: Protein or red blood cells in urine can indicate kidney damage or disease, as these substances would not normally filter through the glomerulus. Glucose in urine is often an indication of diabetes. A person with diabetes will have a high level of glucose in the blood. Photo credit: © Shutterstock 2009, Charles Cloutier Teacher notes In order to make a definite diagnosis of medical condition, doctors normally also need to carry out a blood test. The presence of protein in urine can also be an indication of pregnancy.

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13 What happens if the kidneys fail?
Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys Humans can survive with just one functioning kidney. If both kidneys become diseased or damaged, it can be fatal. Kidney failure can occur due to infection, diabetes, long-term high blood pressure or damage in an accident. If left untreated, urea and other toxins can build up in the blood, poisoning the patient. Photo credit: © 2009 Jupiterimages Corporation To counteract this, people with kidney failure can undergo regular kidney dialysis, or receive a kidney transplant.

14 Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys
What is dialysis? Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys Dialysis involves diverting the blood through an 'artificial kidney' machine that cleans it and returns it to the body. What happens during kidney dialysis? 1. A tube is connected to a vein in the patient’s arm. 2. The patient’s blood flows along the tube, into the machine. 3. Inside the machine, the blood is pumped through semi-permeable tubes surrounded by dialysis fluid. Dialysis fluid contains sodium, magnesium, calcium chloride and potassium chloride and sodium acetate, in the same concentrations as the blood plasma of a healthy person. Photo credit: © Shutterstock 2009, bork Teacher notes Kidney dialysis is used to reduce the concentration of urea, sodium and potassium in a patient’s blood. High concentrations of these substances can cause organ damage.

15 Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys
Dialysis machine Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys

16 Disadvantages of dialysis
Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys It is difficult to control the diffusion of substances in a dialysis machine as well as in a kidney so people on dialysis often have to carefully control their fluid intake and diet. Dialysis can involve a patient going to hospital up to three times a week and being connected up to the dialyser for about four hours at a time. This could have a large impact on a person’s lifestyle. Photo credit:© Shutterstock 2009, beerkoff

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18 What is a kidney transplant?
Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys Kidney failure can also be treated by giving a patient a kidney transplant. This involves replacing the damaged kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. Healthy organs can come from a living or recently deceased person. Living donors are often close friends or relatives of the patient. In the US there is an organ donor register. By joining this people agree to the donation of their organs and tissue for transplantation after their death. Other organs and tissues that can be donated include blood, bone marrow, heart, lungs and cornea.

19 Kidney transplant data
Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys Teacher notes Data from the NHS website: https://www.uktransplant.org.uk/ukt/statistics/calendar_year_statistics/kidney/kidney.jsp This website also contains a lot of other useful information on organ donation and transplants.

20 Preventing organ rejection
Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys All cells contain markers on the surface, called antigens. These help the immune system identify a cell as a cell from the body or a foreign cell. If the immune system detects a transplanted organ as a foreign object, it may mount an immune response against it. This is called organ rejection. Several steps are taken to prevent this: A donor kidney of a similar ‘tissue type’ as the patient, is used. This means that the antigens on the new organ will be as similar as possible to those of the patient. Teacher notes See the Boardworks GCSE Science (Biology) ‘Infection and Immunity’ presentation for more information on antigens and the immune system. Before and after a transplant operation, a patient takes immunosuppressant drugs. These drugs inhibit the activity of the immune system.

21 Problems relating to transplants
Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys A kidney transplant can give a patient a better quality of life, as it provides freedom from dialysis. However, a transplant operation can put the body under a lot of strain and there is potential for problems related to surgery. Immunosuppressant drugs lower a patients resistance to infection and can make infections hard to treat. Photo credit: © Shutterstock 2009, Monkey Business Images Blood tests are regularly carried out to make sure that the organ is functioning and to monitor the effect of the immunosuppressant drugs.

22 What do you think?

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24 Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys
Labelling the kidney Boardworks GCSE Separate Sciences 2009 The Kidneys


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