Presentation on theme: "Chemical Basis of Genetics The DNA Story. Chromosomes What is the nature of this material? –Long threads of Genetic Material existence wasn’t postulated."— Presentation transcript:
Chemical Basis of Genetics The DNA Story
Chromosomes What is the nature of this material? –Long threads of Genetic Material existence wasn’t postulated until
Gregor Mendel first proposed the existence of chromosomes called them factors –did not observe theses “factors” –consequently ideas not readily accepted by the scientific community
Year 1869 Friedrich Miescher (Swiss Botanist) –nature of the cell –treated cell with Pepsin enzyme found in stomach that dissolves proteins to watery solution –noticed - nucleus shrank a little, but essentially remained intact –Conclusion made?
Fredrich Miescher (continued) –Nucleus doesn’t behave like a protein –Contains P along with C, H, O, and N –Nucleic Acids - several types many not found in the nucleus typed studied by Meischer -> DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid De - less Oxy - oxygen Ribo - Ribose Nucleic Acid
Year Chromosomes were first observed –Mendel’s “factors” rediscovered Seem to be affected by / controlling cell division
Year 1914 Robert Feulgen (German Chemist) –devised method to stain DNA -> Bright Red –applied to cells DNA restricted to chromosomes
others used staining technique for Quantitative Studies (How much of a substance is present) Somatic Cells = all have the same amount of DNA Gametes = all have 1/2 the amount of DNA as somatic cells
Year 1914 (continued) –Results of Quantitative Studies suggested to scientists that DNA was the essential material in controlling the expression of inherited traits
DNA not readily accepted by the scientific community - too simple of a molecule!! –Many believed key must be a protein because only a protein was complex enough to encode so much information even though the amount of protein fluctuated with the cell’s activity.
DNA vs. Protein Which chemical is the controlling chemical in controlling the expression of inherited traits?
Year 1928 Fred Griffith (English Medical Bacteriologist) –bacteria causing pneumonia –injected mice with 2 types of bacteria Strain S = Lethal Strain R = Non-lethal
Year 1928 (continued) Results: Lives Dies Lives DIES ! Strain R = Strain S = Dead S = Strain R + Dead S
Year 1928 (continued) How could a mixture of non-lethal and dead lethal bacterial cause a mouse to die? Examine mouse - full of live lethal bacteria!
Live Strain R transformed into live Strain S –hereditary information from the dead lethal bacteria entered non-lethal bacteria and changed them into a lethal variety. Still not convince most biologists to importance of DNA (Why would it?)
Year 1944 DNA isolated and shown to be the item causing the transformation –isolated DNA injected into cell - cell change trait expression at least 30 examples of bacterial transformations by purified DNA described Many still not convinced of importance of DNA
Year 1952 Hershey/Chase (Carnegie Lab of Genetics) –Virus Head - DNA (Phosphorus, but NO Sulfur) Stalk Tail - Protein (Sulfur, but NO Phosphorus)
1952 (continued) Virus Life Cycle (See Drawing on Board)
1952 (continued) results –in the new generations of bacterial cells All Radioactive Phosphorus - No Sulfur conclusion - DNA was inserted to produce new virus
Conclusive evidence to support the importance of DNA in controlling the expression of inherited traits.
DNA Structure 1920’s Phoebus A. Levene (American Biochemist) –DNA composed of 4 bases Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine
all bases contain Nitrogen also present - Phosphate, Sugar (Deoxyribose)
DNA Structure (continued) *nucleotide = basic unit of DNA consisting of a Base, Phosphate, and Sugar
DNA Structure (continued) How are the elements arranged in the DNA? –Chemical Analysis showed the amounts of Guanine = Cytosine Adenine = Thymine Sugars and Phosphates were variable and not equal to each other
DNA Structure (continued) 1953 Watson-Crick Model of DNA
Double Helix in which 2 chains composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups bonded together by bonds between A+T and G+C from opposite sides.
Mutations Gene Mutations (Point Mutations) –one nitrogenous base substituted for another –most common (See Board Diagram)
Chromosomal Mutation –involves many genes 1) Deletion - usually lethal 2) Inversion –middle breaks, turns around, recombines –may not harm if occurs in right place - single genes present
Translocation –fragment of one Chromosomes attaches to non-homologous chromosome may produce serious abnormalities in people
Somatic and Germ Mutations Somatic - affect individual (not offspring) –example: cancer Germ - not affect individual - (can affect offspring)
Effects and Frequencies of Mutations most mutations produce recessive genes –only expressed if combine with a similarly mutated gene
sometimes dominant - a form of dwarfism nearly all chromosomal mutations are harmful –deformities/traits make it hard to survive
some changes help organisms survive when the environment changes –mosquitoes resistant to insecticides –bacteria resistant to antibiotics
How often do Mutations Occur? Believed to be a low rate –1 or 2 / 100,000 genes / generation
Rates affected by mutagens –UV (bacteria, skin cancer) –X-Rays / other radiation –Tars in tobacco smoke (secondary person - cancer) –Smog, viruses, various chemicals, drugs
–Mustard Gas (War) removes Guanine from DNA –Nitrous Acid removes Nitrogen from bases in DNA
Recombinant DNA Technology transferring of DNA segments from one organism into the DNA of another species bacteria used to combat human diseases –human insulin –clotting protein
future –agriculture (disease resistant crops) –food processing –energy production
Q: How do experimenters know which bacteria contain recombinant DNA so they can allow only those bacteria to multiply?
A: Along with segments of DNA, the Experimenters attach marker genes to the plasmids. These genes provide resitance to streptomyocin, an antibiotic that kills certain bacteria.
If the recipient bacteria are grown on a medium containing streptomyocin, the colonies that survive must contain marker genes and therefore recombinant DNA.