Presentation on theme: "The Big Picture: American culture underwent rapid and radical change in the 1920s. Large population shifts and new technologies transformed the nation."— Presentation transcript:
The Big Picture: American culture underwent rapid and radical change in the 1920s. Large population shifts and new technologies transformed the nation from rural to urban and from traditional to modern. CHAPTER 20: THE ROARING TWENTIES
Main Idea: The United States experienced many social changes during the 1920s. CHAPTER 20 SECTION 1: AMERICAN LIFE CHANGES
New Roles for Women New Opportunities 19 th Amendment women run for office and take advantage of new right Women tended to vote the same way as their husbands and fathers. Due to economic boom, women began to join the workforce again. Mostly low paying professions. New Family Roles Rules that defined women’s role in society began to change. Continued to play a key role in the home, but some sought more equality with men. The Flapper refers to a young woman in the 1920s who defied traditional ideas of proper dress and behavior. Suggested a lifestyle of freedom and independence. Not all women were flappers. Jazz Age
Effects of Urbanization A growing divide between the cities and the countryside. Farmers did not join in on the “good times” of the 1920s. People began moving from rural areas to cities. The car shrank the distance between rural and urban. Rural countryside had more access to the latest trends and lifestyles of the cities.
Conflict Over Values There was a large divide between the values of rural America and urban America: Rural America represented traditional America: hard working, self-reliant, religious, and independent. Urban America represented changes that threatened these values. Ku Klux Klan grew rapidly in the 1920s as the threat to these traditional values increased. Targeted African Americans, immigrants, Catholics, and Jews. Fundamentalism or Christian beliefs that were based on a literal interpretation of the bible increased.
Scopes Trial Fundamentalism and science came into conflict, especially over evolution. Fundamentalists did not want evolution taught in public school, went as far as to have laws passed outlawing the teaching of evolution. Opponents of these laws wanted to challenge it. John Scopes, a science teacher in Tennessee, challenged it and was arrested for it. The nation followed the trial closely. Scopes was represented by Clarence Darrow while William Jennings Bryan led the prosecution. Scopes was found guilty of breaking the law, but the trial was really about politics. Freedom of speech, difference between traditional and new values.
Prohibition WWI aided the prohibitionists fight, there was a need for self-discipline during the war and the need for grains that alcohol was made of. Religious groups, Nativists, and women supported the fight against alcohol. In 1917 Congress proposed an amendment to make it illegal to manufacture, transport, and sell alcohol in the United States. Ratified the 18 th amendment in 1919. Enforcing Prohibition was difficult, bootleggers smuggled alcohol for the masses for consumption in speakeasies. Mobsters got in on the business as well.
Main Idea: Transformations in the African American community contributed to a blossoming of black culture centered in Harlem, New York. CHAPTER 20 SECTION 2: THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
The Great Migration African Americans moved in mass from the South to the North to escape racism, segregation, and search for jobs. Mass movement was called The Great Migration. North was no better than the South. Men returning from war wanted their jobs back, tension between whites and blacks over jobs intensified. Erupted in Race Riots in Chicago Many African Americans believed that by helping fight in WWI they earned more freedom.
W.E.B. Dubois Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) that worked to end discrimination and mistreatment of African Americans in the United States. Was the editor of the magazine The Crisis that was a major source of African American writing and poetry. Helped promote the African American arts movement in New York known as The Harlem Renaissance.
Marcus Garvey Garvey took great pride in his African roots. Founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) to encourage African Americans to take pride in their heritage. Promoted Self-Reliance UNIA’s slogan was Back to Africa. Believed that African Americans needed to build a base of economic success. Very critical of the NAACP.
A Renaissance in Harlem James Weldon Johnson wrote “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” who rose to the top of NAACP leadership and his song became the organization’s official anthem. Common theme was defiance or resistance in the face of white prejudice. Langston Hughes, a famous poet, wrote of defiance but also hope. Zora Neale Hurston a famous writer for the variety of work she produced. Lift Every Voice and Sing
Harlem Artists William H. Johnson, Aaron Douglas, and Jacob Lawrence Often focused on the experiences of African Americans in their work
Harlem Music Jazz and blues travelled from the South to the North. Very exciting, improvised, fast or slow, and very easy to dance to. Famous jazz clubs: Savoy Ballroom and the Cotton Club. Mostly played for white audiences. Louis Armstrong one of the most famous jazz players. Other famous artists were Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, and Fats Waller. Bessie Smith one of the most famous blues vocalists
Main Idea: New technologies helped produce a new mass culture in the 1920s. CHAPTER 20 SECTION 3: A NEW POPULAR CULTURE IS BORN
Mass Entertainment in the 1920s one of the most influential inventions due to the ability to play music and news Westinghouse Company created first radio station KDKA to play music and news, other stations quickly joined. With the invention of batteries, radio’s became portable. shared culture amongst Americans-brought country and city together Previous to the 1920s movies had been short and simple. During WWI D.W. Griffith produced The Birth of a Nation, which was considered controversial for racist themes and images. Introduced many advanced filmmaking techniques. Established film as an art form. Films with sound were also introduced. Radio Movies Birth of a Nation
Movie Stars The popularity of movies in the 1920s helped to create a new type of celebrity: The Movie Star. Charlie Chaplin was one of the biggest stars in the 1920s for his signature character – a tramp with ragged clothes and a derby hat. Rudolf Valentino was a super star in the silent films, known for his dark and handsome roles. Clara Bow was the female sex symbol of the 1920s.
Airplane Heroes Charles A. Lindbergh flew a single pilot plane from New York to Paris. First pilot to attempt and complete a transatlantic flight, or flight across the Atlantic ocean. He was young, tall, and handsome and a solid example of many qualities American’s admired. Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic, a little over a year after Lindbergh. In 1937 she attempted to fly around the world. She disappeared somewhere in the Pacific and was never found.
Sports in the 1920s As technology developed to allow Americans to keep up with different sports teams, Americans became devoted to different teams and their players. Radio helped Americans to keep up with their favorite players and teams. American athletes became the most famous and wealthiest individuals in the world.
Arts of the 1920s F. Scott Fitzgerald is one of the most influential writers of the 1920s. Wrote “Bernice Bobs Her Hair” which helped create the image of the Flapper, Tales of the Jazz Age which helped coin the name of the decade, and The Great Gatsby which explored the lives of the rich and examined the values of the upper class. WWI had a deep impact on American writers and gave them powerful experiences to write about. Lost Generation of writers moved to Europe following WWI to give themselves more of the freedom that they desired.