Presentation on theme: "Catering for DRR with a multicultural, transient population: development and application of the Visitor Action Plan Ken Hughey Lincoln University, Canterbury,"— Presentation transcript:
Catering for DRR with a multicultural, transient population: development and application of the Visitor Action Plan Ken Hughey Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand (Invited paper, South Island Civil Defence Emergency Management Conference, Greymouth, July 2014)
Who are these populations, where are they found, and what are they like? Some context
Who are these populations? Tourists – domestic and international Migrant workers – domestic and international School pupils – domestic and international University students – domestic and international Others?
Where are they and how many? Remember NZ has a popn of c.4.5m people; 1m in the SI and the rest in the North. Others are virtually everywhere in the country, at any time, often in vast numbers, e.g.,: – Foreign school students: N=16,000 (in 2011), mainly in major towns & cities (CTV Building in CHCH EQ) – Foreign university students: N= 80,000 (2011) - cities – Migrant workers: N=120,000 (2011) – varies, but CHCH – International visitors: N=2,500,0009 (2013) – everywhere (with some overlap in numbers with above data)
Characteristics and issues: English often the 2 nd or 3 rd language: – challenging to communicate with? Highly mobile – in one place for less than a day or maybe up to 6-months: – of no fixed abode? Multiple forms of communication – cell, , etc: – how best to communicate? Often use diverse and hard to track forms of transport/accommodation: camper vans, bikes, boarding, freedom camping: – how do you know where they are?
Developing an approach for dealing with these challenges within a tourism context: Application to Northland
Tourism in Northland Very seasonal, peak in January Core products: coastal tourism and cultural products Winterless North, but … Exposed to extreme climatic events (floods, storms) and tsunamis Key players: Destination Northland and Tourism Development Group
Guest nights in Northland
Ex-Tropical Cyclone Wilma – January 2011
A not a-typical Northland cyclonic scene (including July 2014!)
How tourism is affected Directly: safety, closures, cancellations Indirectly: damaged assets, disruptions, negative media coverage
Wilma and tourism Many roads were cut Many tourists were stranded Much media interest General view: ‘we were lucky’ Both Civil Defence and Tourism interests wanted to know how well the event was ‘managed’ Interviewed key stakeholders in both CDEM and the tourism industry …
Wilma-related findings Tourism operators generally experienced with natural disasters No formal warning system (or contact tree) for tourism businesses Freedom campers are a concern No plan for communication to tourism stakeholders (in NZ and overseas) during and after an event Northland CDEM systems in place, but no formal integration of tourism (We reviewed all NZ CDEM plans and found little or no reference to tourism in almost all (Queenstown an exception) Opportunity for greater integration of tourism aspects into disaster risk reduction (based on the Four Rs)
General Visitor Needs: Immediate Visitor welfare – Food and potentially clothing – Shelter (welfare centre/other accommodation) – Socio-psychological support (e.g. through Victim Support or Salvation Army) Information flows, different target groups - Important observations: – Visitors are generally able to obtain information (e.g. many have mobile phones): language challenges – Information centres are critical for information and assistance): language challenges – TNZ website and channels are important): language challenges – The role of social media needs to be examined and opportunities exploited): language challenges
General Visitor Needs: Flow-on Passports and Visas – Diplomatic implications when passports/visas are lost – Partnership between tourism organisations, education organisations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Immigration NZ, embassies and others Families of Victims – Assistance required (socio-psychological, travel arrangements, other logistics and formalities) – Specific information needs
Potential contribution of the Visitor Sector to CDEM Tourism can play an important role in the Response: 1.Assisting in dealing with displaced visitors 2.Gathering of information from the tourism and education sectors (how many and where?) 3.Connecting Civil Defence with accommodation and other hospitality (food/feeding/catering) services 4.Providing external communications and dealing with the media 5.Maintaining tourism activities (and economic flow on effects) elsewhere in New Zealand (e.g. rebooking of itineraries)
Summary of tourism issues Rescue and Missing people – All people are treated the same – “Tracking down” of visitors is challenging Coordination and Communication – Challenges and gaps in the first 24 hours very typical for any disaster situation – Lack of consideration of visitor industry resulted in oversights in the immediate response by Civil Defence – Different protocols for different organisations involved in offshore communication Destination image – False reporting, some sensationalism – Relationship with media essential to avoid damaging reporting and to capitalise on media as communication channel – Overly negative travel advisories – Innovative campaigns important – see photo above
Taking a systematic approach to thinking about how tourism and CDEM can be integrated for better management of multi-cultural and highly transient visitors
Disaster frameworks International frameworks: PPRR (e.g. Hills, 1998 in Ritchie, 2008) Faulkner’s Framework (2001) New Zealand: the Four Rs used in the CDEM framework Prevention / Mitigation1. Pre-event phase: contingency plans, scenario analyses, hazard assessments. Reduction Preparedness2. Prodromal phase: due to an imminent disaster, early warning systems are activated and command centres are established. Readiness Response3. Emergency phase: Actions are necessary to protect people and property. 4. Intermediate phase: short term needs of people/tourists have to be addressed and media communication is critical. Response Recovery5. Recovery phase: Rebuilding of infrastructure, marketing of destination. 6.Resolution phase: evaluation and feedback. Recovery
Developing a Visitor Action Plan (VAP) for Northland Initial consultation Two rounds of interviews Business survey In-depth meetings with CDEM and Destination Northland Workshop with Tourism Development Group Final workshop with tourism stakeholders - approval of VAP
Template for linking tourism into the existing Civil Defence structure (on the left hand side of the Figure) based on the Northland case study
Suggestions for what a Visitor Action Plan for tourism should contain (provided by respondents to the tourism operator survey) ReductionReadinessResponseRecovery Not specific to one of the Rs Planning and mitigation Consultation and education Warning systems (Early) Evacuation and communication Rescue and welfare Transportation Communications Rebuild Assistance Communications Communications Hazards Other
Visitor Action Plan adopted by the Tourism Cluster in Northland – example components ActionLeadershipPreparation Reduction Identify, map, understand hazards for businesses Civil Defence in partnership with Destination Northland Use existing hazard assessments (e.g. tsunami maps) and ensure tourism operators know about them. Readiness Tourism linked into CEGDestination Northland Attend meetings of the Coordinating Executive Group (CEG) in CDEM. Response Destination Northland Crisis Plan Destination Northland Hold a staff meeting and collect information on contact details and what people would do in an emergency; Perform emergency drills. Recovery External communications plan and templates Destination Northland and businesses Prepare templates and keep them in a readily available folder and electronically; Consider media training for emergency.
ActionLeadership (proposed)Preparation Reduction Identify, map, understand hazards for businesses Civil Defence in partnership with Destination Northland Use existing hazard assessments (e.g. tsunami maps) and ensure tourism operators know about themtsunami maps Workshop format? Readiness Develop a Communication Network I-site mgrs coordinate development of contact tree by sub region and by industry group (include DN manager) Identify existing contact trees (e.g. CRPs, MANZ, etc.) Develop trees for gaps (consider new technology like twitter) Ensure that trees are linked to CD in most efficient way Discuss back up and data sharing protocols Tourism linked into CEG Destination Northland Attend meetings of the Coordinating Executive Group in CDEM Annual ReviewTDG Allocate slot in meeting once a year to discuss CDEM issues (e.g. winter meeting); discuss upcoming issues Use existing checklists (e.g. PATA, p )PATA Business Crisis “To- do” list and plan Destination Northland in partnership with CD Workshop format? Templates, e.g. Tourism VictoriaTourism Victoria Response Destination Northland Crisis Plan Destination Northland Hold a staff meeting and collect information on contact details and what people would do in an emergency (follow example of Positively Wellington) Drill I-Site Crisis Plan I-Sites, either individually or collectively Hold a staff meeting and collect information on contact details and what people would do in an emergency Drill Recovery Ensure tourism is well connected TDG Keep informed and maintain contacts with important national and regional organisation that might assist recovery External comms plan and templates Destination Northland and businesses Prepare templates and keep them in a readily available folder and electronicallytemplates Consider media training for emergency
Where to from here? Project recently approved (for KH and Susanne Becken, Griffith University) with CDEM Resilience Collaborative Fund to: – Evaluate Northland experience – what is working, what isn’t, what can we do better? – Apply that experience to the West Coast of the South Island context Consider how the VAP concept might be linked with an integrated certification programme, e.g., Qualmark in New Zealand Tie to international initiatives in this space Raise the question more generally – would your region benefit from closer links with Tourism and would this build resilience?
Summary Tourism is probably more exposed to natural disasters than any other ‘group’ in the population Often, emergency management systems do not explicitly consider tourism Tourism’s concerns need to be addressed, and at the same time tourism is an important resource Tourist destinations are a suitable partner for disaster management A proactive approach is better than a reactive one