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Linux Serial Programming for POSIX Operating Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Linux Serial Programming for POSIX Operating Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Linux Serial Programming for POSIX Operating Systems

2 What Are Serial Communications ?
Speed : in bits-per-second (“bps”) . Represents the number of ones and zeroes that can be sent in one second. The modulation rate can be lower than the bits-per-second (bps) rate when we encode more than one bits in a single change of symbol. The number of changes per second in the signal is termed “baud rate”. Half Duplex – It is necessary to control RTS, CTS, and possibly DCD Signals Flow Control None Hardware – RS232 – RTS – CTS signals Software – Special Characters start XON (or DC1) or stop (XOFF or DC3) Full Duplex – No need to Control RTS and CTS Signals Asynchronous of Synchronous Communication via RS-232 Communication via RS-485 (Differential Mode)

3 About Serial Ports On Windows On Linux On Solaris/SunOS
Com1, Com2, Com3 On Linux /dev/ttyS0, /dev/ttyS1, /dev/ttyS2 On Solaris/SunOS /dev/ttya, /dev/ttyb, /dev/ttyc On POSIX systems, a serial port is a file (/dev/ttyS0). Thus, the Open( ) and Close ( ) functions have to be used to work with the serial port.

4 Input Concepts for Serial Devices - 1
The appropriate concept has to be chosen for the intended application. Whenever possible, do not loop reading single characters to get a complete string because there may get characters lost. Canonical Input Processing This is the normal processing mode for terminals. A read( ) will only return a full line of input. It means that the process (or thread) will not proceed until a full line is received !!!. A line is by default terminated by a NL (ASCII LF), and end of file, or and end of line character. A CR (DOS/Windows default end-of-line) will not terminate a line with the default settings.

5 Input Concepts for Serial Devices - 2
Non-Canonical Input Processing Non-Canonical Input Processing will handle a fixed amount of characters per read, and allows for a character timer (to specify RX timeout). When the serial port is programmed to read a number N of chars, it will not return N chars. It will return the number of chars already available in the input buffer !!!!!!!!!!. The user has to control it. Two parameters control the behavior of this mode: c_cc [VTIME] sets the character timer c_cc [VMIN] sets the minimum number of characters to receive before satisfying the read. If MIN > 0 and TIME=0, MIN sets the number of chars to receive before the read is satisfied. As TIME is zero, the timer is not used. If MIN=0 and TIME > 0, TIME serves as a timeout value. The read will be satisfied if a single char is read, or TIME is exceeded.

6 Input Concepts for Serial Devices - 3
The two modes above can be used in synchronous and asynchronous modes. In synchronous mode the read () operation will block until the read is satisfied. In asynchronous mode the read () statement will return immediately and send a signal to the calling program upon completion. This signal can be received by a signal handler. There is also Raw input – Raw input is unprocessed, that is, the receiver does not interpretate any character. To accomplish this, deselect the ICANON, ECHO, ECHOE and ISIG options when using raw input: Options.c_flag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO | ECHOE | ISIG);

7 Configuring a Serial Port
# indclude “global.h” # include <sys/ioctl.h> # include <sys/io.h> # include <asm/system.h> # include <sys/termios.h> # include <sys/fcntl.h> # define BAUDRATE B9600 # define MODEMDEVICE “/dev/ttyS2” # define …………… FILE *input; FILE *output; Int fd, tty, struct termios oldtio, newtio; Struct ……….. void configure_serial () { fd = open (MODEMDEVICE, O_RDWR | O_NOCTTY | O_NONBLOCK); if (fd < 0) { perror (MODEMDEVICE); exit (-1); } tcgetattr (fd, &oldtio); // ==== save current port settings ==== // bzero (&newtio, sizeof (newtio)); newtio.c_cflag = BAUDRATE | CRTSCTS | CS8 | CLOCAL | READ; newtio.c_iflag = IGNPAR; // Ignore parity errors newtio.c_oflag = 0; // newtio.c_lflag = 0; newtio.c_cc[VTIME] = 0; // === timer not used ====== newtio.c_cc[VIMIN] = 1; // === blocking read until 1 char read tcflush (fd, TCIFLUSH); tcsetattr (fd, TCSANOW, &newtio); } O_RDWR – Open for Read and Write Mode O_NOCTTY – tell Unix this prog is no controlling terminal for that port O_NONBLOCK – Non Blocking Mode c_flag – Control Options (control speed, no data bits, parity, stop bits, etc) i_flag – Input Options (enable/disable parity check, ignore break, etc) o_flag – Output options ( Map lower to upper case, map CR to NL, etc) l_flag – line options ( TCSANOW – specifies all changes to occur NOW without waiting for output data to finish sending or input data finish receiving TCIFLUSH – Flush Input and Output buffers and make the change c_cc char array – control char definitions as well as timeout parameters

8 RECEIVING A CHARACTER Void recebe_caracter (char ch, char tout) {
char carac; int ……; for (I=0; I<N, I++) buf[I] = ‘\0’; // Limpa buffer de recepçao timeout = FALSE; // Timeout de caractere do { res = read (fd, buf, 1); if (res == 0) timeout = TRUE; carac = buf [0]; printf (“carac lido = %02X\r\n“, carac); } while (( buf[0] != EOT) && (timeout == FALSE); if (timeout == TRUE) { }

9 Sending a Message Function
Void envia_mensagem (int tamanho) // FUNÇÃO DE ENVIAR { int flags, nbytes, para1; char ch; long int I; ioctl (fd, TIOCMGET, &flags); // == Get the current MODEM status bits for (I = 0; I < ; I++); // espera 10 ms antes de acionar RTS flags | = TIOCM_RTS; // prepara RTS (Request to Send) if (( ioctl (fd, TIOCMSET, &flags) < 0)) perror ( “IOCTL”); // Seta RTS na serial while ((( inb (0x3ED) & 0x60) != 0x60)); // 3ED=ttyS2 ; 3FD = ttyS0; 2FD = ttyS1; for (I =0; I < 50000; I++); // espera 10ms antes de enviar dados nbytes = write (fd, buf_tx, tamanho); // transmite msg while ((( inb(0x3ED) & 0x40) != 0x40)); // Espera transmitir - valores para COM2; for (I= 0; I<50; I++); // espera 10ms antes de retirar RTS flags &= ~TIOCM_RTS; // prepara variavel de RTS, resetando if ((ioctl (fd, TIOCMSET, &flags) < 0)) perror ( “IOCTL”); // reseta RTS, na serial } Draw Picture with Half – Duplex RS 485 or RS 422 Scheme NOTE: Under Linux the serial port is configured using the ioctl( ) system call

Void fecha_e_restabelece () // FUNÇÃO DE FECHAMENTO { tcsetattr (fd, TCSANOW, &oldtio); // restabelece configuração anterior close (fd); // fecha dispositivo da serial fclose (input); fclose (output); }

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