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Final exam review.

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Presentation on theme: "Final exam review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Final exam review

2 Ecology

3 Put the levels of organization in order from least inclusion (species) to most inclusive.
~species, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere. 2. Algae and plants at the beginning of food chains are called ~primary producers

4 3. How are herbivores and carnivores alike
3. How are herbivores and carnivores alike? ~both obtain energy by consuming other organisms 4. A model of the complex feeding interactions among organisms in a community from producers to decomposers is called a ~food web

5 Only 10% of the energy stored in an organism can be passed on to the next tropic level. What happens to the other 90%? ~some is used for life processes and the rest is eliminated as heat 6. The repeated movement of water between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere is called the ~the water cycle

6 7. Energy flows one way through the ecosystem while nutrients are recycled throughout the biosphere__ by way of biogeochemical cycling. 8. An organism’s niche is ~ the range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way it obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce

7 9. Several species of warblers can live in the same spruce tree ONLY because they ~occupy different niches within the tree 10. Define herbivory. ~interaction in which an animal feeds on plants

8 A certain species of bird eats fish
A certain species of bird eats fish. What would happen to the fish population if the bird population decreases? ~the fish population would increase 12. A wolf pack hunts, kills and feeds on a moose. The wolves are ~predators

9 13. A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit is ~mutualism 14. What is one difference between primary and secondary succession? ~Secondary begins on soil while primary begins on newly exposed surfaces

10 15. What factors play a role in population growth rate
15. What factors play a role in population growth rate? ~immigration, emigration, birth rate, death rate 16. The movement of organisms into an area or range is called ~immigration

11 17. What can be said of a population whose death rate is becoming higher than the birthrate? ~The population is decreasing in size 18. Figure 5-1 shows what type of growth curve? ~exponential

12 19. As resources in a population become less available, the population reaches ~carrying capacity 20. If a population grows larger than the carrying capacity, what will most likely happen? ~The death rate may rise 21. Demography is the study of ~human populations

13 DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis

14 22. Griffith called the process he observed transformation because ~The harmless bacteria had been transformed

15 23. What molecule stores information in a cell. ~DNA 24
23. What molecule stores information in a cell? ~DNA 24. What happens when a piece of DNA is missing? ~genetic information is lost

16 25. Figure 12-2 show the structure of ~A DNA molecule 26
25. Figure 12-2 show the structure of ~A DNA molecule 26. Because of base pairing rules, what is equal to what? ~Adenine = Thymine Guanine = Cytosine

17 27. Which scientist(s) figured out that the shape of a DNA molecule is a double helix? ~Watson and Crick 28. During DNA replication, a DNA strand that has the bases CTAGGT produces a strand with what bases? ~GATCCA

18 29. RNA contains the sugar ~ribose 30
29. RNA contains the sugar ~ribose 30. Unlike DNA, which has thymine, RNA contains ~uracil 31. Which type of RNA brings the information in the genetic code from the nucleus to other parts of the cell? ~mRNA

19 32. In Figure 13. 3 which amino acid is specified by the mRNA code CCC
32. In Figure 13.3 which amino acid is specified by the mRNA code CCC? GAG? ~ Pro, Glu

20 33. What happens during translation
33. What happens during translation? ~The cell uses a messenger RNA to make proteins 34. Genes (segments of DNA) contain instructions for assembling ~proteins 35. A mutation that involves one or a few nucleotides is called ~a point mutation

21 Genetics

22 36. How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype. ~46 37
36. How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype? ~ Why is colorblindness more common in males than females? ~The allele is located on the X chromosome (males XY so only get one)

23 38. If a man with blood type A and a woman with blood type B produce offspring, what might be the offspring’s blood type? ~A, B, AB, O

24 39. What can be used to cut DNA so it can be studied
39. What can be used to cut DNA so it can be studied? ~restriction enzymes 40. During gel electrophoresis what length of DNA travels faster? ~Short (100 base pairs would travel faster than 1,000 base pairs)

25 41. Which enzyme(s) in figure 14-8 would be best for cutting DNA to make fragments with sticky ends? ~EcoR1 and Bam1

26 42. The Human Genome project is an attempt to ~Sequence the DNA of every human gene 43. What enzyme joins two pieces of DNA together? ~DNA ligase

27 44. What does figure 15-1 represent? ~An enzyme being used to cut DNA

28 45. The process of making changes in the DNA code of a living organism is called ~genetic engineering 46. A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is known as ~recombinant DNA

29 47. To produce transgenic bacteria that make insulin, what should be done first? ~Cut out the insulin gene from human DNA 48. GM crops that produce a higher yield per plant than unmodified crops would ~Produce more food for the same acreage

30 49. The use of DNA fingerprinting relies on the fact that ~no two people, except identical twins, have exactly the same DNA

31 Evolution and classification

32 50. The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on different Galapagos Islands varied in certain structural adaptations. What was the most significant adaptation that Darwin noted? ~Bird’s different shaped beaks

33 51. The observation that finches of different species on the Galapagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the hypothesis that these finches ~descended from a common ancestor 52. Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its specific environment ~fitness

34 53. According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have ~variations best suited to environmental conditions 54. The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. This is evidence in support of ~common descent

35 55. In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thighbone, are involved in walking. In wales, the pelvis and femur shown in Figure 16-1 are ~Vestigial structures

36 56. Molecular evidence in support of natural selection includes ~ The nearly universal genetic code 57. The genes carried by all members of a particular population make up the population’s ~gene pool

37 58. Natural selections acts directly on ~phenotypes 59
58. Natural selections acts directly on ~phenotypes 59. A change in the genetic material of a cell is called a ~mutation 60. An example of a single-gene trait is ~sickle cell anemia in humans

38 61. The frequency of phenotypes for a typical polygenic trait is most often illustrated as ~a bell shaped curve

39 62. One end of figures 17-1 shows an increase in average beak size for a population of birds. When individuals at only one end of a bell curve of phenotype frequencies have high fitness the result is ~directional selection

40 63. Figure 17-2 shows highest fitness toward the center of the curve
63. Figure 17-2 shows highest fitness toward the center of the curve. When individuals with an average form of a trait have the highest fitness, the result is ~ stabilizing selection

41 64. One reason common names are not useful to biologist is that they ~can apply to more than one animal 65. One goal of scientists is to assign every organism a universally accepted name according to the system known as ~binomial nomenclature 66. To be useful, a scientific name has to refer to ~a single species

42 67. Based on their names, you know that the baboon Papio annubis and Papio cynocephalus do NOT belong to the same ~species 68. Systematics is ~the science of naming and grouping organisms

43 69. What are the two highest level taxa in the Linnaean system
69. What are the two highest level taxa in the Linnaean system? ~phylum and kingdom 70. Similar DNA sequences in genes can be evidence of ~common ancestry

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