2Griffith and Transformation In 1928, British scientist Fredereick Griffith was trying to figure out how bacteria make people sick with pneumonia.Griffith had isolated two different strains (types) of pneumonia bacteria from mice.Only one of the strains caused pneumonia.The disease-causing strain grew into smooth colonies on culture plates, the harmless strain had colonies w/ rough edges.
10Griffith’s Experiments When Griffith injected mice with the disease-causing strain of bacteria, the mice developed pneumonia and died.When mice were injected with the harmless strain, they didn’t get sick at all.
11TransformationGriffith’s next experiment produced an amazing result. He mixed heat killed-disease causing bacteria with live, harmless ones and injected the mixture into mice…and they developed pneumonia and died.The heat-killed bacteria had somehow passed their disease causing ability the harmless strain, and he called this “transformation”.
18Avery and DNAOswald Avery made an extract (juice) from the heat-killed bacteria. When they treated it with an enzyme that destroyed DNA, transformation did not occur.They concluded that DNA was the transforming factor.This is how Avery discovered that DNA stores and transmits genetic information.
19The Hershey-Chase Experiment These 2 scientists collaborated in studying viruses, nonliving particles that can infect living organisms.
24BacteriophagesOne kind of virus that infects bacteria is known as a bacteriophage, which means “bacteria eater”.Bacteriophages are made of a DNA or RNA coat and a protein core.The virus attaches to the surface of a cell and injects its genetic information into it. Many new bacteriophages are made by the cell, and they burst out of the cell when it splits open.
29Radioactive MarkersThey grew viruses in cultures containing radioactive isotopes of phosphorus-32 and sulfur-35.Proteins contain no phosphorus and DNA contains no sulfur.The radioactive isotopes were used as markers to determine that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was DNA, and not protein.
31The Components and Structure of DNA DNA is a long molecule made up of units called nucleotides.Each nucleotide is made up of 3 basic components: a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.There are four kinds of nitrogenous bases in DNAPurines have 2 rings, pyrimidines have 1
44The Double HelixJames Watson and Francis Crick tried to understand the structure of DNA by using 3 dimensional models of the molecule. Their final model of DNA was a double helix, with 2 strands wound around eachother.