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Adaptive multi-scale model for simulating cardiac conduction Presenter: Jianyu Li, Kechao Xiao

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Contents Introduction Cardiac conduction & multi-scale modeling Modeling Macroscale, microscale and multi-scale models Results Comparison between different models Summary

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Cardiac conduction The study of electrical conduction of the cardiac tissue / myocyte. “If we want the cardiac muscle cells to contract, we have to excite them (depolarize them)...... The term "cardiac conduction system" refers to the system of electrical signaling that instructs these muscle cells to contract.” Main challenge of modelling: the multi-scale nature of biological systems. Ionic flow at the subcellular level ultimately causes excitation and contraction of muscle at the tissue level. (From 10 −2 cm × 10 −3 cm × 10 −3 cm to 10 cm × 10 cm × 1 cm)

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Multi-scale modeling Macroscopic v.s. Microscopic descriptions of cardiac conduction: -Macroscopic: equations relies upon the assumption that the potential and gating variables do not change significantly between cells; may not capture the dynamics of the underlying microscopic system. -Microscopic: At cellular level; most studied in literature; too expensive for large scale simulation Multi-scale modelling: -Employing macroscopic model away from action potential wave fronts, and microscale model near these wave fronts. Paul E. Hand and Boyce E. Griffith, PNAS, 107, 33, (2010)

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Modeling Geometry: a strand of myocytes Equivalent circuit diagram Grounded extracellular space Shared equipotential clefts Resistive connections Gap junction for ions Potential Gating variable Paul E. Hand and Boyce E. Griffith, PNAS, 107, 33, (2010)

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Microscale model Like heat equation, along the myocyte BC for left-hand end, different from side BC for right-hand end Cleft potential Gating variable function along the myocyte Gating variable function on BC Paul E. Hand and Boyce E. Griffith, PNAS, 107, 33, (2010)

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Macroscale model Macroscale ephaptic model Homogenization: varying slowly over the length scales of cells Macroscale non-ephaptic model Paul E. Hand and Boyce E. Griffith, PNAS, 107, 33, (2010)

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Multi-scale model BCs at the interface of macro- and micro-scale. Discretization ResolvedUnresolved Eqs. 1-7 Eqs. 8-9 ith block jth myocyte kth node Microscale model near the action potential wave fronts, only where cleft potentials nonzero Macroscale model in regions where potentials vary slowly, non-ephaptic model Paul E. Hand and Boyce E. Griffith, PNAS, 107, 33, (2010)

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Adaptivity criteria Sharp wave fronts are resolved Paul E. Hand and Boyce E. Griffith, PNAS, 107, 33, (2010) When Potential gradients or cleft potentials are non-trivial

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Nonephaptic simulation A plot of conduction speed versus fraction of normal gap-junctional conductance for several nonephaptic models and levels of resolution. The coarse macroscale simulations incorrectly predict the value of gap-junctional conductance at which propagation block occurs. The fine macroscale simulations fail to predict propagation block at all. The macroscale simulations with one node per myocyte exhibit remarkable agreement with the microscale and adaptive multiscale simulations over a wide range of gap-junctional coupling levels. A plot of intracellular potential at a fixed time for several different nonephaptic models with gap-junctional coupling at approximately 1% of normal. Observe that the multiscale model has unresolved regions on both the left and right of the wave front. Note that the multiscale and microscale models agree quite well and that the macroscale model agrees with them only if the grid spacing is 100 μm.

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Ephaptic simulation A plot of conduction speed versus cleft-to-ground resistance for several ephaptic models and levels of resolution. The microscale and multiscale models show a nonmonotonic profile of conduction speed versus cleft-to-ground resistance, known as the ephaptic effect. In contrast, the macroscale simulations do not capture this effect at resolutions of 20 μm, 100 μm, or 200 μm. In these simulations, gap-junction levels are at 1% of their normal value of 666 mS∕cm2, and 90% of Nat channels are localized to the ends of cells. A plot of intracellular and cleft potentials at a fixed time for several different ephaptic models with gap-junctional coupling at 1%of normal and Rc=8.85e3 kΩ. (Top) Intracellular potential for each model; (Bottom) cleft potential only for the multiscale and microscale models. The macroscale cleft potentials are omitted for clarity. Note that the cleft potentials for the multiscalemodel are shown only in the resolved region, as the model assumes them to be identically zero everywhere else. Observe that the multiscale and microscale models agree quite well. The macroscale model does not agree with them for either grid spacing. Note that 20 μm is the spacing used by the microscale simulations and the microscale part of the multiscale simulations.

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Summary Multi-scale modeling on cardiac conduction is discussed. The effects of gap-junctional and ephaptic coupling on conduction are investigated. Simulation results show that the multi-scale model proposed by the author agrees well with microscopic model in all cases, with a largely improved computational efficiency. Meanwhile, the macroscopic model is sensitive to grid spacing and not very accurate, although it has the best efficiency.

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Thank you

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Semi-discretized equations Spatially central difference Microscale Paul E. Hand and Boyce E. Griffith, PNAS, 107, 33, (2010)

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Adaptivity criteria: Sharp wave fronts are resolved Macroscale Runge-Kutta method for g dynamics Potentials and gating variables by 2 nd Strang opterator splitting scheme, time step 5e -4 ms Spatial derivatives via Crank- Nicolson method. Paul E. Hand and Boyce E. Griffith, PNAS, 107, 33, (2010)

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