Presentation on theme: "How does DNA contain the instructions for life?. Griffith demonstrates Transformation Griffith experimented with the bacteria that cause pneumonia. He."— Presentation transcript:
How does DNA contain the instructions for life?
Griffith demonstrates Transformation Griffith experimented with the bacteria that cause pneumonia. He used two forms: the S form (deadly) and the R form (not deadly). A transforming material passed from dead S bacteria to live R bacteria, making them deadly.
The glowing mouse
Avery identified DNA as the transforming principle. Avery isolated and purified Griffith’s transforming principle. Avery performed three tests on the transforming principle. –Qualitative tests showed DNA was present. –Chemical tests showed the chemical makeup matched that of DNA. –Enzyme tests showed only DNA-degrading enzymes stopped transformation.
Hershey and Chase confirm that DNA is the genetic material. Hershey and Chase studied viruses that infect bacteria, or bacteriophages. Tagged DNA was found inside the bacteria; tagged proteins were not. – They tagged viral DNA with radioactive phosphorus. – They tagged viral proteins with radioactive sulfur.
DNA structure DNA is composed of four types of nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three parts. –a phosphate group –a deoxyribose sugar –a nitrogen-containing base phosphate group deoxyribose (sugar) nitrogen-containing base
The nitrogen containing bases are the only difference in the four nucleotides.
Watson and Crick determined the three-dimensional structure of DNA by building models. They realized that DNA is a double helix that is made up of a sugar- phosphate backbone on the outside with bases on the inside.
Watson and Crick’s discovery built on the work of Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, and Erwin Chargaff. –Franklin and Wilkins’ x-ray images suggested that DNA was a double helix of even width. –Chargaff’s rules stated that amounts of A=T and C=G.
T A C G Nucleotides always pair in the same way. The base-pairing rules show how nucleotides always pair up in DNA. Because a pyrimidine (single ring) pairs with a purine (double ring), the helix has a uniform width. – A pairs with T – C pairs with G
Backbone is made of deoxyribose sugar and phosphate hydrogen bond covalent bond
The backbone is connected by covalent bonds. hydrogen bond covalent bond The bases are connected by hydrogen bonds.
A sample of DNA is 40% adenine. How much guanine is in the sample?
If a segment of DNA is 5´-CATTAC - 3´ the complementary DNA strand is: (a) 5´-CATTAC - 3´ (b) 3´-CATTAC - 5´ (c) 5´-CATTAC - 5´ (d) 3´-GTAATG - 5´ (e) 5´-GTAATG - 3´
DNA Replication When does it occur? S phase DNA replication is the process by which DNA is copied during the S phase
DNA serves as a template. Enzymes do the work. 1. DNA helicase unzips the double helix. 2. DNA polymerase brings free nucleotides to the template strand. nucleotide The DNA molecule unzips in both directions.
3. DNA polymerase enzymes bond the nucleotides together to form the double helix. DNA polymerase new strand nucleotide
This process occurs in many places at once along the DNA molecule, thus speeding up the process.
End Result: 2 identical molecules of DNA, each with one original strand and one new strand original strand new strand Two molecules of DNA