Presentation on theme: "Mendel’s Experiments Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who conducted experiments on pea plants Mendel’s experiments answered many questions, but."— Presentation transcript:
1Mendel’s ExperimentsGregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who conducted experiments on pea plantsMendel’s experiments answered many questions, but led to even more!What are genes made of!We will study Gregor Mendel in the next unit!
2Griffith’s Experiment – 1928 Examined Streptococcus pneumoniae strains and miceS strain of bacteria cause pneumoniaR strain of bacteria does NOT cause pneumoniaS strain of bacteria can be killed and rendered harmless by heatingR bacteria mixed with heat-killed S bacteria can still cause infectionGriffith's Experiment Video ClipCompletely unrelated experiment – trying to develop a vaccine against pneumoniaS strain is enclosed in a capsule that protects it from the body’s immune system making it virulent.
3Griffith’s Experiment – 1928 Conclusion – Some type of material can move from the heat–killed S bacteria to the R bacteria to cause disease, and that this must be the genetic material—TRANSFORMATIONTransformation – change in the genotype (genetic makeup of an organism) caused when cells take up foreign genetic materialThe cause of transformation was not known at the time
4Griffith’s Experiment – 1928 The DNA of the heat–killed bacteria was not altered and became incorporated into the DNA of the live bacteria.DNA can tolerate temperatures of 90˚CProteins are denatured ~ 60˚C
5Avery’s Experiment – 1944Material responsible for transformation is not affected by protein–destroying enzymesThe activity is stopped by a DNA–destroying enzyme!Proved DNA is the material responsible for transformation.
6Hersey and Chase’s Experiment – 1952 Worked with bacteriophages (viruses), which are made of only DNA and proteinAlternated between using radioactive DNA or radioactive proteinSulfur isotope (35S) – only found in protein coatPhosphorous isotope (32P) – only found in DNALooked to see if bacteria became radioactive when radioactive DNA or when radioactive protein was inserted by the virusHershey Chase Video ClipAlfred Hershey and Martha Chase
7Hersey and Chase’s Experiment – 1952 The bacteria only became radioactive when radioactive DNA was usedConclusion – DNA is what is inserted into the bacteria, not the protein!
8Hersey and Chase’s Experiment – 1952 They all prove that DNA, not proteins, are what is being passed on and is the heredity material!