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AP Biology 4/21/2015 DNA The Genetic Material: History.

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2 AP Biology 4/21/2015 DNA The Genetic Material: History

3 AP Biology Chromosomes related to phenotype  T.H. Morgan  working with Drosophila  fruit flies  associated phenotype with specific chromosome  white-eyed male had specific X chromosome 1908 | 1933

4 AP Biology Genes are on chromosomes  Morgan’s conclusions  genes are on chromosomes  but is it the protein or the DNA of the chromosomes that are the genes?  initially proteins were thought to be genetic material… Why? 1908 | 1933 What ’ s so impressive about proteins?!

5 AP Biology The “Transforming Principle” 1928  Frederick Griffith  Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria  was working to find cure for pneumonia  harmless live bacteria (“rough”) mixed with heat-killed pathogenic bacteria (“smooth” has a mucus coating) causes fatal disease in mice  a substance passed from dead bacteria to live bacteria to change their phenotype  “Transforming Principle”

6 AP Biology The “Transforming Principle” Transformation = change in phenotype something in heat-killed bacteria could still transmit disease-causing properties live pathogenic strain of bacteria live non-pathogenic strain of bacteria mice diemice live heat-killed pathogenic bacteria mix heat-killed pathogenic & non-pathogenic bacteria mice livemice die A.B. C. D.

7 AP Biology  Griffith’s hypothesis:  When live, harmless bacteria and heat-killed bacteria are mixed, the heat-killed bacteria passed on disease-causing information to the live cells of the harmless bacteria, causing harmless bacteria to “transform” into bad bacteria  Transforming Factor  This factor was probably a gene because he noticed that the offspring inherited the disease as well  Suggested DNA was genetic material What Griffith’s experiment proved

8 AP Biology  The process during which bacteria are changed by absorbing genetic material from an outside source Transformation definition:

9 AP Biology  GhMbDyi4 GhMbDyi4 Griffith’s experiment video

10 AP Biology DNA is the “Transforming Principle”  Avery, McCarty & MacLeod  purified both DNA & proteins (component of chromosomes) separately from Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria  which will transform non-pathogenic bacteria?  injected protein into bacteria  no effect  injected DNA into bacteria  transformed harmless bacteria into virulent bacteria 1944 What ’ s the conclusion? mice die

11 AP Biology Oswald AveryMaclyn McCartyColin MacLeod Avery, McCarty & MacLeod  Conclusion  first experimental evidence that DNA was the genetic material-not protein 1944 | ??!!

12 AP Biology  Scientists were still skeptical  Protein is made of 20 amino acids. DNA is made of only 4nucleotides. Didn’t make sense  They thought, “DNA is too simple!”

13 AP Biology Confirmation of DNA  Hershey & Chase  classic “blender” experiment  worked with bacteriophage  viruses that infect bacteria  grew phage viruses in 2 media, radioactively labeled with either  35 S in their proteins  32 P in their DNA  infected bacteria with labeled phages 1952 | 1969 Hershey Why use S ulfur vs. P hosphorus?

14 AP Biology Protein coat labeled with 35 S DNA labeled with 32 P bacteriophages infect bacterial cells T2 bacteriophages are labeled with radioactive isotopes S vs. P bacterial cells are agitated to remove viral protein coats 35 S radioactivity found in the medium 32 P radioactivity found in the bacterial cells Which radioactive marker is found inside the cell? Which molecule carries viral genetic info? Hershey & Chase

15 AP Biology

16  d77SRWZI d77SRWZI Phage video

17 AP Biology Blender experiment  Radioactive phage & bacteria in blender  35 S phage  radioactive proteins stayed in supernatant  therefore viral protein did NOT enter bacteria  32 P phage  radioactive DNA stayed in pellet  therefore viral DNA did enter bacteria  Confirmed DNA is “transforming factor” Taaa-Daaa!

18 AP Biology Hershey & Chase Alfred HersheyMartha Chase 1952 | 1969 Hershey

19 AP Biology Chargaff  DNA composition: “Chargaff’s rules”  varies from species to species  all 4 bases not in equal quantity  bases present in characteristic ratio  humans: A = 30.9% T = 29.4% G = 19.9% C = 19.8% 1947 That ’ s interesting! What do you notice? Rules A = T C = G

20 AP Biology Structure of DNA  Watson & Crick  developed double helix model of DNA  other leading scientists working on question:  Rosalind Franklin  Maurice Wilkins  Linus Pauling 1953 | 1962 Franklin WilkinsPauling

21 AP Biology Watson and Crick 1953 article in Nature CrickWatson

22 AP Biology  VSvLfGE VSvLfGE Watson and Crick speak

23 AP Biology Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958)

24 AP Biology  dZBPCsQ&feature=related dZBPCsQ&feature=related History of DNA video- summary

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