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Ch. 16 – (DNA Discovery and Structure). By the late 1940’s scientists knew that chromosomes carry hereditary material & they consist of DNA and protein.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 16 – (DNA Discovery and Structure). By the late 1940’s scientists knew that chromosomes carry hereditary material & they consist of DNA and protein."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 16 – (DNA Discovery and Structure)

2 By the late 1940’s scientists knew that chromosomes carry hereditary material & they consist of DNA and protein.

3 *proteins have functional specificity *little was known about DNA *properties of DNA seemed too uniform to account for the multitude of inherited traits Most researchers thought PROTEIN was the genetic material because:

4  Frederick Griffith (1928) performed experiments which provided evidence that the genetic material was DNA *Griffith was trying to find a vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae

5 2 strains of pneumococcus: -smooth, encapsulated strain (S): PATHOGENIC -rough, nonencapsulated strain (R): NONPATHOGENIC

6 4 experiments (see fig. 16.1)

7 *Griffith was unable to determine the chemical nature of the transforming agent but hinted that it was not protein because heat denatures protein yet it did not destroy the transforming ability of the genetic material in the heat-killed S cells

8 *Avery, McLean and MacLeod (1944) discovered that the transforming agent was DNA (purified chemicals from heat-killed bacteria and tried to transform live nonpathogenic bacteria w/each chemical…only DNA worked!)

9  Hershey and Chase discovered that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophage (T2) in 1952 *these scientists did not know which viral component (DNA or protein) was responsible for reprogramming the host bacterial cell (see experiment Fig. 16.2) 1953

10 *Results: viral protein remains outside the host cell and viral DNA is injected into the host cell; therefore nucleic acids rather than proteins are the hereditary material -radioactive P-32 found inside host cell -radioactive S-35 found outside host cell

11  Experimental evidence for DNA as the hereditary material in eukaryotes came from the lab of Erwin Chargaff (1947); using paper chromatography to separate nitrogenous bases, Chargaff reported the following: I believe that the double-stranded model of DNA came about as a consequence of our conversation; but such things are only susceptible of a later judgment...."

12 Chargaff’s Results: *DNA composition is species-specific; the amounts and ratios of bases vary from one species to another *in every species he studied, there was a regularity in base ratios where the # of A residues equaled the # of T residues, and the # of G equaled the # of C

13  Watson and Crick discovered the double helix by building models to conform to X-ray data *Watson saw an X-ray photo of DNA produced by Rosalind Franklin; Watson and Crick deduced from Franklin’s data that:

14 a) DNA is a helix with a width of 2 nm b) purine & pyrimidine bases are stacked 0.34 nm apart c) the helix makes 1 full turn every 3.4 nm along its length d) there are 10 layers of bases in each turn of the helix

15  Watson and Crick’s proposed structure is a ladder-like molecule with sugar-phosphate backbones as uprights and pairs of bases as rungs.  the 2 sugar-phosphate backbones of the helix are ANTIPARALLEL (they run in opposite directions) Original DNA demonstration model

16  to be consistent with a 2 nm width, a purine on one strand must pair (by H- bonding) with a pyrimidine on the other strand  base structure dictates which pairs of bases can form hydrogen bonds

17

18  DNA is made up of subunits called NUCLEOTIDES  each nucleotide is made up of 3 basic parts: *5-carbon sugar: deoxyribose *nitrogenous base: A, G, C, or T *phosphate group

19 DNA is made up of 3 components: deoxyribose, phosphate and bases. What is the maximum number of components that deoxyribose is linked to in a DNA molecule? A. 1 phosphate & 1 base C. 1 phosphate & 2 bases B. 2 phosphates & 1 base D. 2 phosphates & 2 bases IB-HL

20 What did Griffith’s experiments show? A.That cytosine and guanine occur in approximately equal percentages B.That bacteria infected with radioactively labeled viruses became radioactive only when exposed to viruses with radioactive phosphorus labels C.That heat-killed bacteria (denatured protein) could transform a nonpathogenic bacteria into a pathogenic one D.That DNA is antiparallel

21 What did Hershey & Chase’s experiments show? A.That cytosine and guanine occur in approximately equal percentages B.That bacteria infected with radioactively labeled viruses became radioactive only when exposed to viruses with radioactive phosphorus labels C.That heat-killed bacteria (denatured protein) could transform a nonpathogenic bacteria into a pathogenic one D.That DNA is antiparallel

22 DNA is antiparallel. What does this mean? A.A “C” pairs with a “G” whereas a “T” pairs with an “A” B.A “C” pairs with a “T” whereas a “G” pairs with an “A” C.The 2 DNA strands run in the same direction D.The 2 DNA strands run in opposite directions

23 Why does a purine have to pair with a pyrimidine? A.So that the DNA strand has a consistent width (2 nm). B.So that the number of C-H bonds remains constant C.So that the percent of A’s & T’s and C’s & G’s remains constant D.Both A and C


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