23 Experiments that proved DNA is the genetic material in cells. 1. Griffith (1928)2. Avery (1944)3. Hershey and Chase (1952)
3Griffith (1928) - discovers transformation Griffith worked with:- harmless Pneumococcus bacteria- lethal Pneumococcus bacteria,- and mice.
4EXPERIMENT Mice LIVED Mice DIED 1.) He injected mice with the harmless bacteria.2.) He injected mice with lethal bacteria.3.) He killed the lethal bacteria, and injected the dead bacteria into the mice.
5He injects harmless bacteria and dead lethal bacteria into the mice Mice DIED!!!The live harmless bacteria had been transformed (changed) into lethal bacteria by the dead lethal bacteria! He called this transformation.
6The next big question?What kind of chemical caused the cells to change?Was it DNA or protein?
7B. Avery (1944) - discovers protein is NOT the transforming agent (but he doesn’t prove DNA is – drats!)His experiment was also withharmless Pneumococcus bacterialethal Pneumococcus bacteriaand mice
8What Avery did to get ready: He chopped up heat-killed lethal bacteria.He took the DNA out of some dead lethal bacteria and protein out of the dead lethal bacteriaWhat do you think Avery is going to do next?
91.) He injected mice with harmless bacteria + just the protein from dead lethal 2.) He injected mice with harmless bacteria + just the DNA from dead lethal bacteriaMICE LIVEDMICE DIED!
10CONCLUSION:Only the harmless bacteria + DNA from dead lethal bacteria killed the mice.He has proven that protein is NOT the transforming agent!
11C. HERSHEY and CHASE (1952) - prove that DNA is the transforming agent C. HERSHEY and CHASE (1952) - prove that DNA is the transforming agent. (that is -DNA can store information!)Hershey and Chase work with:bacteriophageradioactive tracers…P32 for DNA and S35 for protein
12Bacteriophage = a virus that infects bacteria Bacteriophage = a virus that infects bacteria. (Bet you didn’t know that bacteria can get sick.)Made of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein capsid.Radioactive tracers can be used to follow molecules taking X-ray pictures.Protein has sulfur in it. The phage protein was labeled with S35DNA has phosphorus in it. The phage DNA was labeled with P32
13What Hershey and Chase did: They infected bacteria with viruses made with P32 in the DNA and S35 in the protein.After the infection, the viruses are separated from the bacteria.RESULT: Infected bacteriacontain P32 and not S35CONCLUSIONDNA got into the transformed bacteria!DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL!
14In your notebook…. 1. Record the following about Griffith’s experiment A. Question or problem: B. Hypothesis (If…then…) C. Independent variable: D. Dependent variable: E. Control variables: Conclusion:
15Get out your notebook, please. 2 Get out your notebook, please. 2. Record the following about Avery’s experiment:A. Question or problem: B. Hypothesis (If…then…) C. Independent variable: D. Dependent variable: E. Control variables: Conclusion:
16Get out your notebook, please. 3 Get out your notebook, please. 3. Record the following about about the Hershey and Chase experimentA. Question or problem: B. Hypothesis (If…then…) C. Independent variable: D. Dependent variable: Conclusion:
17DNA gel electrophoresis: a way to identify someone’s DNA.
18Who discovered the structure of DNA? Practice QuestionsWho discovered the structure of DNA?a) Hershey and Chaseb) Averyc) Griffithd) Watson and Crick
192. In which of the following experiments was transformation first discovered? a) Hershey and Chaseb) Averyc) Griffithd) Watson and Crick
203. Which of the following statements most accurately describes a bacteriophage (virus)? A) it is a bacteria with a protein coat anda DNA coreB) it is an isotope that can be seen usingX-raysC) it is a virus that infects bacteria