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Composition of ad hoc Committees Implications Nicolas Angelet.

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Presentation on theme: "Composition of ad hoc Committees Implications Nicolas Angelet."— Presentation transcript:

1 Composition of ad hoc Committees Implications Nicolas Angelet

2 I. Policy Issues A. International and Institutional Proceedings No party appointments (Article 52.3) In lieu of domestic control (Article 54) → Legitimacy towards State Parties → Avoid (perceived) domestic or ‘partisan’ influences

3 I. Policy Issues B. Annulment proceedings Open-ended grounds Directed against award = potentially affecting the arbitrators (cf. Article 52.3) → Legitimacy towards State Parties : avoid domestic or ‘partisan’ positions → Fairness towards the arbitrators : maximize coherence = legal certainty

4 II. Familiarity with the legal system involved in the dispute? A. Broches et al.: “the requirement of familiarity with the legal system(s) involved may present another obstacle” to continuity in the composition of the Committees

5 II. Familiarity with the legal system involved in the dispute? Not in line with: –Annulment as a substitute for domestic control, i.e., unrelated to the legal system involved in the dispute –Annulment as distinguished from appeal –Need to enhance coherence

6 III. Committee Members more experienced than the Arbitrators? Pierre Lalive: “.. the choice of committee members has not always been made … among more experienced people, than that of the arbitrators..”

7 III. Committee Members more experienced than the Arbitrators? Fairness towards the arbitrators and possibly legitimacy towards State parties Unrelated to coherence Arbitrators’ authority often cannot be outclassed Experience in what? ICSID arbitration, ICSID annulment proceedings, domestic proceedings directed against arbitral awards

8 IV. Int’l and Domestic Lawyers Different Legal Cultures Public international lawyers: –Advantages: grounds for annulment as treaty law public international law issues raised under a ground of annulment safeguarding proceedings against domestic influences –Limits: few public international lawyers experienced in proceedings against arbitral awards

9 IV. Int’l and Domestic Lawyers Different Legal Cultures Domestic Lawyers: –Advantages : larger number with relevant experience –Limits: risk of undue domestic influences – compensation through representation of different legal cultures

10 IV. International and Domestic Lawyers Present Philippe Gruslin v. Malaysia Date Registered: December 19, 2000 Composition: President: Thomas BUERGENTHAL (U.S.) Members: Kamal HOSSAIN (Bangladeshi) Gabrielle KAUFMANN-KOHLER (Swiss) WHL v. Egypt Date Registered: January 24, 2001 Composition: President: Konstantinos D. KERAMEUS (Greek) Members: Andreas BUCHER (Swiss) Francisco ORREGO VICUÑA (Chilean) CAA S.A. and VU v. Argentina Date Registered: March 23, 2001 Composition: President: L. Yves FORTIER (Canadian) Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) José Carlos FERNÁNDEZ ROZAS (Spanish) CDC Group plc v. Seychelles Date Registered: April 30, 2004 Composition: President: Charles N. BROWER (U.S.) Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean) David A.R. WILLIAMS (New Zealand) Consortium R.F.C.C. v. Morocco Date Registered: April 30, 2004 Composition: President: Bernard HANOTIAU (Belgian) Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek) Franklin BERMAN (British) ■ ■ International Domestic

11 Repsol Date Registered: July 15, 2004 Composition: President: Judd L. KESSLER (U.S.) Members: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian) Gonzalo BIGGS (Chilean) MTD v. Chile Date Registered: September 30, 2004 Composition: President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French) Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) Sara ORDOÑEZ NORIEGA (Colombian) HNS v. United Arab Emirates Date Registered: November 12, 2004 Composition: President: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine) Members: Omar NABULSI (Jordanian) Brigitte STERN (French) JMML v. Egypt Date Registered: December 22, 2004 Composition: President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek) Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean) José Luis SHAW (Uruguayan) Lucchetti v. Peru Date Registered: July 01, 2005 Composition: President: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish) Members: Andrea GIARDINA (Italian) Franklin BERMAN (British) CMS Gas Transmission v. Argentina Date Registered: September 27, 2005 Composition: President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French) Members: Nabil ELARABY (Egyptian) James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) Patrick Mitchell v. DRC Date Registered: July 15, 200 Composition: President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek) Members: Robert S.M. DOSSOU (Beninese) Andrea GIARDINA (Italian )

12 Azurix Corp. v. Argentina Date Registered: December 11, 2006 Composition: President: Gavan GRIFFITH (Australian) Members: Bola AJIBOLA (Nigerian) Michael HWANG (Singaporean) Siemens A.G. v. Argentina Date Registered: July 16, 2007 Composition: President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French) Members: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine) Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese) Malaysian Historical Salvors v. Malaysia Date Registered: September 17, 2007 Composition: President: Stephen M. SCHWEBEL (U.S.) Members: Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese) Peter TOMKA (Slovak) Ahmonseto Date Registered: November 02, 2007 Composition: President: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian) Members: Azzedine KETTANI (Moroccan) Peter TOMKA (Slovak) M.C.I. Power Group Date Registered: December 06, 2007 Composition: President: Dominique HASCHER (French) Members: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish) Peter TOMKA (Slovak) Fraport AG Date Registered: January 08, 2008 Composition: President: Peter TOMKA (Slovak) Members: Dominique HASCHER (French) Campbell McLACHLAN (New Zealand)

13 V. Investors’ States / Host States Legitimacy (subjective impartiality) towards State Parties, in particular Host States

14 V. Investors’ States - Host States Present Philippe Gruslin v. Malaysia Date Registered: December 19, 2000 Composition: President: Thomas BUERGENTHAL (U.S.) Members: Kamal HOSSAIN (Bangladeshi) Gabrielle KAUFMANN-KOHLER (Swiss) WHL v. Egypt Date Registered: January 24, 2001 Composition: President: Konstantinos D. KERAMEUS (Greek) Members: Andreas BUCHER (Swiss) Francisco ORREGO VICUÑA (Chilean) CAA S.A. and VU v. Argentina Date Registered: March 23, 2001 Composition: President: L. Yves FORTIER (Canadian) Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) José Carlos FERNÁNDEZ ROZAS (Spanish) CDC Group plc v. Seychelles Date Registered: April 30, 2004 Composition: President: Charles N. BROWER (U.S.) Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean) David A.R. WILLIAMS (New Zealand) Consortium R.F.C.C. v. Morocco Date Registered: April 30, 2004 Composition: President: Bernard HANOTIAU (Belgian) Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek) Franklin BERMAN (British) ■ ■ Investors’ States Host States ■ In between

15 Repsol Date Registered: July 15, 2004 Composition: President: Judd L. KESSLER (U.S.) Members: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian) Gonzalo BIGGS (Chilean) MTD v. Chile Date Registered: September 30, 2004 Composition: President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French) Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) Sara ORDOÑEZ NORIEGA (Colombian) HNS v. United Arab Emirates Date Registered: November 12, 2004 Composition: President: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine) Members: Omar NABULSI (Jordanian) Brigitte STERN (French) JMML v. Egypt Date Registered: December 22, 2004 Composition: President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek) Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean) José Luis SHAW (Uruguayan) Lucchetti v. Peru Date Registered: July 01, 2005 Composition: President: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish) Members: Andrea GIARDINA (Italian) Franklin BERMAN (British) CMS Gas Transmission v. Argentina Date Registered: September 27, 2005 Composition: President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French) Members: Nabil ELARABY (Egyptian) James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) Patrick Mitchell v. DRC Date Registered: July 15, 200 Composition: President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek) Members: Robert S.M. DOSSOU (Beninese) Andrea GIARDINA (Italian )

16 Azurix Corp. v. Argentina Date Registered: December 11, 2006 Composition: President: Gavan GRIFFITH (Australian) Members: Bola AJIBOLA (Nigerian) Michael HWANG (Singaporean) Siemens A.G. v. Argentina Date Registered: July 16, 2007 Composition: President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French) Members: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine) Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese) Malaysian Historical Salvors v. Malaysia Date Registered: September 17, 2007 Composition: President: Stephen M. SCHWEBEL (U.S.) Members: Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese) Peter TOMKA (Slovak) Ahmonseto Date Registered: November 02, 2007 Composition: President: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian) Members: Azzedine KETTANI (Moroccan) Peter TOMKA (Slovak) M.C.I. Power Group Date Registered: December 06, 2007 Composition: President: Dominique HASCHER (French) Members: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish) Peter TOMKA (Slovak) Fraport AG Date Registered: January 08, 2008 Composition: President: Peter TOMKA (Slovak) Members: Dominique HASCHER (French) Campbell McLACHLAN (New Zealand)

17 VI. Continuity in Composition Enhances coherence → legal certainty Not to the detriment of other criteria Obstacle : Increased caseload, exclusionary rules Informal copy of WTO Appellate Body >< Secrecy of deliberations

18 VI. Continuity in Composition Klöckner I : Date Registered: 16 February 1984 Composition: President: Pierre LALIVE (Swiss) Members: Ahmed Sadek EL-KOSHERI (Egyptian) Ignaz SEIDL-HOHENVELDERN (Austrian) Amco I: Date Registered: 18 March 1985 Composition: President: Ignaz SEIDL-HOHENVELDERN (Austrian) Members: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine) Andrea GIARDINA (Italian) MINE: Date Registered: 30 March 1988 Composition: President: Sompong SUCHARITKUL (Thai) Members: Aaron BROCHES (Netherlands) Kéba MBAYE (Senegalese) Klöckner II: Date Registered: 1 July 1988 Composition: President: Sompong SUCHARITKUL (Thai) Members: Andrea GIARDINA (Italian) Kéba MBAYE (Senegalese) Amco II: Date Registered: 18 October 1990 and 20 February 1991 Composition: President: Sompong SUCHARITKUL (Thai) Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek) Dietrich SCHINDLER (Swiss) SPP v. Egypt: Date Registered: 27 May 1992 Composition: President: Claude REYMOND (Swiss) Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek) Kéba MBAYE (Senegalese)

19 VI. Continuity in Composition Present Philippe Gruslin v. Malaysia Date Registered: December 19, 2000 Composition: President: Thomas BUERGENTHAL (U.S.) Members: Kamal HOSSAIN (Bangladeshi) Gabrielle KAUFMANN-KOHLER (Swiss) WHL v. Egypt Date Registered: January 24, 2001 Composition: President: Konstantinos D. KERAMEUS (Greek) Members: Andreas BUCHER (Swiss) Francisco ORREGO VICUÑA (Chilean) CAA S.A. and VU v. Argentina Date Registered: March 23, 2001 Composition: President: L. Yves FORTIER (Canadian) Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) José Carlos FERNÁNDEZ ROZAS (Spanish) CDC Group plc v. Seychelles Date Registered: April 30, 2004 Composition: President: Charles N. BROWER (U.S.) Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean) David A.R. WILLIAMS (New Zealand) Consortium R.F.C.C. v. Morocco Date Registered: April 30, 2004 Composition: President: Bernard HANOTIAU (Belgian) Members: Arghyrios A. FATOUROS (Greek) Franklin BERMAN (British) Patrick Mitchell v. DRC Date Registered: July 15, 200 Composition: President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek) Members: Robert S.M. DOSSOU (Beninese) Andrea GIARDINA (Italian)

20 Repsol Date Registered: July 15, 2004 Composition: President: Judd L. KESSLER (U.S.) Members: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian) Gonzalo BIGGS (Chilean) MTD v. Chile Date Registered: September 30, 2004 Composition: President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French) Members: James R. CRAWFORD (Australian) Sara ORDOÑEZ NORIEGA (Colombian) HNS v. United Arab Emirates Date Registered: November 12, 2004 Composition: President: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine) Members: Omar NABULSI (Jordanian) Brigitte STERN (French) JMML v. Egypt Date Registered: December 22, 2004 Composition: President: Antonias C. DIMOLITSA (Greek) Members: Michael HWANG (Singaporean) José Luis SHAW (Uruguayan) Lucchetti v. Peru Date Registered: July 01, 2005 Composition: President: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish) Members: Andrea GIARDINA (Italian) Franklin BERMAN (British) CMS Gas Transmission v. Argentina Date Registered: September 27, 2005 Composition: President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French) Members: Nabil ELARABY (Egyptian) James R. CRAWFORD (Australian)

21 Azurix Corp. v. Argentina Date Registered: December 11, 2006 Composition: President: Gavan GRIFFITH (Australian) Members: Bola AJIBOLA (Nigerian) Michael HWANG (Singaporean) Siemens A.G. v. Argentina Date Registered: July 16, 2007 Composition: President: Gilbert GUILLAUME (French) Members: Florentino P. FELICIANO (Philippine) Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese) Malaysian Historical Salvors v. Malaysia Date Registered: September 17, 2007 Composition: President: Stephen M. SCHWEBEL (U.S.) Members: Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN (Guyanese) Peter TOMKA (Slovak) Ahmonseto Date Registered: November 02, 2007 Composition: President: Piero BERNARDINI (Italian) Members: Azzedine KETTANI (Moroccan) Peter TOMKA (Slovak) M.C.I. Power Group Date Registered: December 06, 2007 Composition: President: Dominique HASCHER (French) Members: Hans DANELIUS (Swedish) Peter TOMKA (Slovak) Fraport AG Date Registered: January 08, 2008 Composition: President: Peter TOMKA (Slovak) Members: Dominique HASCHER (French) Campbell McLACHLAN (New Zealand)

22 VI. Continuity in Composition Observations ( Present) Out of 38 persons, 11 have served more than 1 time Generally, not in successive Committees 7 have served in 2 different Committees 3 have served in 3 different Committees 1 has served in the 4 last Committees → Return to continuity?

23 Conclusion Proposed criteria largely matched Recent return to continuity but loss of Investors’ State / Host State balance Danger of sacrificing other criteria to continuity ?


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