Presentation on theme: "John H. Alexander, MD, MHSc Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA Lars Wallentin, MD, PhD Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala, Sweden."— Presentation transcript:
John H. Alexander, MD, MHSc Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA Lars Wallentin, MD, PhD Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala, Sweden On behalf of the APPRAISE Investigators John H. Alexander, MD, MHSc Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA Lars Wallentin, MD, PhD Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala, Sweden On behalf of the APPRAISE Investigators Safety of the factor Xa inhibitor, apixaban, in combination with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndromes: Results from the APPRAISE-1 dose guiding trial
Disclosures APPRAISE-1 was supported by Bristol-Myers Squibb John Alexander Research Support: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Medicure, Medtronic Japan, Millennium, NIH, Regado Biosciences, Schering Plough Consulting: Adolor, Daiichi Sankyo, Medicure, NIH, Novartis Lars Wallentin Research Support: Astra-Zeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Lilly, GlaxoSmithKlein, Schering-Plough This presentation discusses the unapproved use of apixaban in patients with acute coronary syndromes
Background Patients with acute coronary syndromes continue to have recurrent ischemic events despite contemporary evidence based care including revascularization and potent antiplatelet therapy. Oral anticoagulation (warfarin and the direct thrombin inhibitor, ximelagatran) is superior to aspirin following acute coronary syndromes, however warfarin is rarely used because of its narrow therapeutic window and requirement for monitoring. No placebo controlled trial of oral anticoagulation has been performed in patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy. Novel anticoagulants offer an opportunity to reduce recurrent ischemic events beyond dual antiplatelet therapy but also pose a risk of bleeding.
Direct, selective inhibitor of Factor Xa Potent with high oral bioavailability Concentration-dependent anticoagulation Effective in preclinical models of venous and arterial thrombosis No QTc prolongation No organ toxicity in toxicology studies Elimination ~70% GI tract, ~25% renal Half-life ~12 hrs Ongoing phase 3 clinical programs venous thromboembolism atrial fibrillation Apixaban X Thrombin (IIa) Fibrin IX XI XII VIII VII Prothrombin Fibrinogen V Prothrombinase Complex TF
APPRAISE Objectives To evaluate the effect on bleeding of 4 doses of apixaban vs. placebo given over 26 weeks in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome receiving current evidence based care. To determine the optimal dose of apixaban for further investigation.
Inclusion Criteria Age 18–90 years Recent ( 7 days) acute coronary syndrome Symptoms of myocardial ischemia lasting at least 10 minutes Elevated cardiac markers (Tn T or I, CK-MB) or ST elevation / depression ( ≥ 1.0 mm) Clinically stable, receiving standard post-ACS care At least 1 additional risk factor for recurrent ischemic event Age 65 years Both elevated cardiac markers and ST deviation Diabetes mellitus Prior MI within the past 12 months Prior ischemic stroke, TIA, or asymptomatic carotid stenosis Peripheral vascular disease Prior symptomatic CHF or a left ventricular EF <40% Non-revascularized multivessel CAD Mild to moderate renal insufficiency (CrCl <90 ml/min)
Exclusion Criteria Planned catheterization, PCI, CABG or other invasive procedure Persistent severe HTN (SBP ≥180, DBP ≥110 mmHg) Severe renal dysfunction (CrCl <30 ml/min) Active bleeding or at high risk for bleeding Acute pericarditis or pericardial effusion Recent stroke ( 3 months) Severe heart failure (NYHA Class IV) Platelet count 100,000/mm 3, hemoglobin 10g/dl Need for ongoing parenteral or oral anticoagulant Chronic NSAID or high-dose (>325 mg/day) aspirin
Phase B = 1168 Study Design Recent ( 7 days) Acute Coronary Syndrome plus at least one additional risk factor Apixaban 20 mg QD n=221 Apixaban 20 mg QD n=221 Apixaban 10 mg BID n=248 Apixaban 10 mg BID n=248 Phase A = 547 Apixaban 10 mg QD n=184 Apixaban 10 mg QD n=184 Placebo n=184 Placebo n=184 Randomized, double-blind. Study drug for 6 months. Aspirin 165 mg/d. Clopidogrel per MD discretion (stratified randomization) Randomized, double-blind. Study drug for 6 months. Aspirin 165 mg/d. Clopidogrel per MD discretion (stratified randomization) Phase A 1:1:1 Phase A 1:1:1 Apixaban 2.5 mg BID n=179 Apixaban 2.5 mg BID n=179 Interim analysis (DSMB review) Phase B 3:1:1:2:2 Phase B 3:1:1:2:2 Placebo n=427 Placebo n=427 Apixaban 2.5 mg BID n=138 Apixaban 2.5 mg BID n=138 Apixaban 10 mg QD n=134 Apixaban 10 mg QD n=134 Total = 1715 Apixaban 20 mg QD n=221 Apixaban 20 mg QD n=221 Apixaban 10 mg BID n=248 Apixaban 10 mg BID n=248 Primary safety outcome: ISTH major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding (ISTH) Secondary efficacy outcome: cardiovascular death, MI, severe recurrent ischemia or ischemic stroke Discontinued early due to excess bleeding in patients receiving apixaban and dual antiplatelet therapy
ISTH* Bleeding Definitions Major Bleeding – Bleeding… with a fall in hemoglobin of ≥2 g/dL, or with transfusion of ≥2 units of PRBC or whole blood, or that occurs in a critical location, i.e., intracranial, intraspinal, intraocular, retroperitoneal, intraarticular or pericardial, or that causes death Clinically Relevant Non-Major Bleeding – Bleeding… that does not meet criteria for major bleeding, and that requires any medical or surgical intervention to treat the bleeding *ISTH – International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
APPRAISE Enrollment Enrollment Europe (plus)1305 Austria14 Belgium62 Denmark54 France56 Germany95 Israel163 Italy2 Poland166 Russia442 Spain99 Sweden111 United Kingdom41 North America410 Canada219 United States191
Baseline Characteristics PlaceboApixaban 2.5 mg BID10 mg QD N Median (IQR) Age, yrs 60 (52,69)62 (53,69)61 (52,69) Age ≥75 yrs, % Female, % Mean weight, kg Diabetes mellitus, % Recent prior MI, % Cerebrovascular disease, % Peripheral vascular disease, % CHF or LVEF < 40%, % Residual multivessel CAD, % Mild or moderate renal insufficiency, %
Index Event and Concomitant Medications PlaceboApixaban 2.5 mg BID10 mg QD N Index Event ST-elevation MI, % PCI, % Clopidogrel, % Mean time to study drug, days Concomitant Medications During Trial Aspirin, % Clopidogrel, % Beta blockers, % Ace-Inhibitors or ARBs, % Calcium blockers, % Nitrates, % Statins, %
Bleeding ISTH and TIMI Scales
ISTH Major or CRNM Bleeding Weeks HR % CI 0.91 to 3.48 p = 0.09 HR % CI 1.31 to 4.61 p = Placebo Apix 2.5 mg BID Apix 10 mg QD
Bleeding by Clopidogrel Status N
Ischemic Outcome CV Death, MI, SRI or Stroke Weeks HR: % CI: 0.44 to 1.19 p = 0.21 HR: % CI: 0.35 to 1.04 p = 0.07 Placebo Apix 2.5 mg BID Apix 10 mg QD
Ischemic Events by Clopidogrel Status N
Adverse Events PlaceboApixaban 2.5 BID10 QD10 BID*20 QD* N Any Adverse Event Any Serious Adverse Event Discontinuation Due to AE Liver Function Testing ALT/AST >3 x ULN, % ALT/AST >5 x ULN, % ALT/AST >10 x ULN, % *Includes only patients who were randomized treated and events that occurred through October 1, 2007 when the 10mg BID and 20mg QD arms were discontinued.
Conclusions This is the first experience using anticoagulation with a direct factor Xa inhibitor for secondary prevention in patients with an acute coronary syndrome treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. We found that the addition of apixaban to contemporary antiplatelet therapy for 6 months following an acute coronary syndrome results in a dose dependent increase in bleeding and a promising trend toward a reduction in clinically important ischemic events. The relative increase in bleeding and reduction in ischemic events appears similar among patients taking single (aspirin) or dual (aspirin plus clopidogrel) antiplatelet therapy. Apixaban, at a total daily dose of between 5 and 10 mg, appears promising in patients with recent acute coronary syndromes receiving either aspirin or dual antiplatelet therapy and deserves further clinical investigation.
Study Organization APPRAISE Investigators and Research Coordinators Steering Committee (National Coordinators): Lars Wallentin and Robert Harrington (co-chairs), John Alexander (PI, USA), Richard Becker, Deepak Bhatt, Frank Cools (Belgium), Filippo Crea (Italy), Harald Darius (Germany), Mikael Dellborg (Sweden), Keith Fox (UK), Shaun Goodman (Canada), Kurt Huber (Austria), Steen Husted (Denmark), Basil Lewis (Israel), Jose Lopez- Sendon (Spain), Puneet Mohan (BMS), Giles Montalescot (France), Mikhail Ruda (Russia), Witold Ruzyllo (Poland), Freek Verheugt. Data Monitoring Committee: Maarten Simoons (chair), Eric Boersma, James DeLemos, Fred Spencer DCRI (CEC, Stats): Kenneth Mahaffey, Meredith Smith, Laura Melton, Robert Clare CRO (PPD): Clark Weaver, Keven Griffith Sponsor (BMS): Rajnish Saini, Leigh Townes, Heather Knowles, Helen He