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The Origins of Editing Styles and Techniques COM 320—History of the Moving Image.

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Presentation on theme: "The Origins of Editing Styles and Techniques COM 320—History of the Moving Image."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Origins of Editing Styles and Techniques COM 320—History of the Moving Image

2 I. The Beginnings of Classical (Hollywood) Editing

3 1. Intercutting (between 2+ different spaces; also called parallel editing or crosscutting) -e.g., D. W. Griffith’s Broken Blossoms (boxing match vs. girl/Chinese man encounter)

4 I. The Beginnings of Classical (Hollywood) Editing 1. Intercutting (between 2+ different spaces; also called parallel editing or crosscutting) -e.g., D. W. Griffith’s Broken Blossoms (boxing match vs. girl/Chinese man encounter) -e.g., lack of intercutting: The Life of An American Fireman (1903, George S. Fleming & Edwin S. Porter (uncredited))

5 I. The Beginnings of Classical (Hollywood) Editing 1. Intercutting (between 2+ different spaces; also called parallel editing or crosscutting) 2. Analytical editing -Breaks a single space into separate framings

6 I. The Beginnings of Classical (Hollywood) Editing 1. Intercutting (between 2+ different spaces; also called parallel editing or crosscutting) 2. Analytical editing 3. Continguity editing -Movement from space to space -e.g., Rescued by Rover

7 I. The Beginnings of Classical (Hollywood) Editing 1. Intercutting (between 2+ different spaces; also called parallel editing or crosscutting) 2. Analytical editing 3. Continguity editing 4. Specific techniques degree system (violated in Cabinet of Dr. Caligari) 2. Point of view (POV) 3. Eyeline match 4. Shot/reverse shot

8 1. l80 o system No Yes

9 2. POV shot

10 3. Eyeline match (and the Kuleshov Effect)

11 4. Shot-Reverse-Shot series

12 II. Soviet Montage Editing

13 1. Many shots

14 II. Soviet Montage Editing 2. Rapid cutting

15 II. Soviet Montage Editing 3. Thematic montage

16 II. Soviet Montage Editing 4. Creative geography

17 II. Soviet Montage Editing 5. Kuleshov Effect Established (??) by Lev Kuleshov in a series of experiments (poorly documented, however) Nature of the “Kuleshov Effect”—Even without establishing shot, the viewer may infer spatial or temporal continuity from shots of separate elements; his supposed early “test” used essentially an eyeline match

18 II. Soviet Montage Editing 5. Kuleshov Effect

19 Kuleshov Effect—Preliminary Empirical Evidence Essential Kuleshov FRAMES Study 2011 SOUP = ??? COFFIN = ??? GIRL WITH TEDDY BEAR= ???

20 Kuleshov Effect—Preliminary Empirical Evidence Essential Kuleshov FRAMES Study 2011 SOUP = HUNGER COFFIN = SADNESS GIRL WITH TEDDY BEAR= ANGER

21 Kuleshov Effect—Possible sequences Essential KuleshovManipulation Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3 Condition 4 Condition 5

22 II. Soviet Montage Editing 6. Contradictory space Shots of same event contradict one another (e.g., plate smashing in Potemkin)

23 II. Soviet Montage Editing 7. Graphic contrasts Distinct change in composition or action (e.g., Odessa step sequence in Potemkin)

24 II. Soviet Montage Editing 8. Cubism? From Yuri Tsivian’s analysis on the Strike DVD: Multiple views of the scene are presented, views that are not POVs of any characters in film–like the work of a cubist artist

25 Cubism— Subject is “cut up” (decoupage), then re-assembled using various angles e.g., Pablo Picasso

26 II. Soviet Montage Editing 9. Intercutting Expanded use from Griffith

27 II. Soviet Montage Editing 10. Overlapping editing Repetitions expand the time of the event shown Later example–Babe (in-class showing) Later example—Mission Impossible 2

28 Overlapping Editing Angle A

29 Overlapping Editing Angle AAngle B

30 Overlapping Editing Angle AAngle BAngle C

31 Overlapping Editing Angle AAngle BAngle C

32 Overlapping Editing Mission Impossible 2, John Woo, 2000: Mission Impossible 2, John Woo, 2000:

33 II. Soviet Montage Editing 11. Elliptical cutting/Jump cutting Opposite effect of overlapping editing A portion of the event is left out (often via jump cuts), so the event takes less time than it would in reality Later examples–Rocky Horror Picture Show, Basquiat (in-class showing)

34 Elliptical (Jump Cut) Editing Angle A

35 II. Soviet Montage Editing 12. Nondiegetic inserts Elements from outside the “story world” (diegesis) are inserted for symbolic or metaphorical purposes e.g., Slaughterhouse/police attack in Strike

36

37 II. Soviet Montage Editing 12. Nondiegetic inserts Elements from outside the “story world” (diegesis) are inserted for symbolic or metaphorical purposes e.g., Slaughterhouse/police attack in Strike Later examples–Naked Gun 2-1/2, My Own Private Idaho, Basquiat (in-class showing)

38 Non-diegetic Inserts--Example Naked Gun 2-1/2 Naked Gun 2-1/2 12 inserts during sex scene: 12 inserts during sex scene: A flower opening A flower opening Raising of a pillar in ancient Egypt Raising of a pillar in ancient Egypt Rocket blasting off Rocket blasting off Man putting a hot dog in a bun Man putting a hot dog in a bun Man being shot out of a cannon at a circus Man being shot out of a cannon at a circus Train going through a tunnel Train going through a tunnel Oil rigs moving up and down Oil rigs moving up and down A roller coaster going upside down A roller coaster going upside down A submarine firing a torpedo A submarine firing a torpedo A levee breaking A levee breaking Fireworks Fireworks A basketball being dunked A basketball being dunked

39 Non-diegetic Inserts—Other Examples? Fight Club (peaceful forest, flames) Fight Club (peaceful forest, flames) A Clockwork Orange (explosions, hanging, vampire fangs) A Clockwork Orange (explosions, hanging, vampire fangs) ??? ???

40 end


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